⒈ Apple Ethical Issues

Wednesday, December 08, 2021 4:54:48 AM

Apple Ethical Issues

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Apple Ethical Issues

Now the focus is on any products associated with the Trump family or businesses whose executives serve on Trump advisory boards. A profile over the weekend described the motives and tactics of the activist behind the anti-Trump buying campaign. On the other hand, some activists contend it is ethically required to use your purchasing power in this way. Automakers and Air Bags. One of the most difficult ethical choices made by any company is, When is there enough evidence of a safety problem to warrant recalling and replacing the product? On which day should they recall apple juice? And should they also recall all other blends which use even 1 percent of the apple juice. Today a similar issue is roiling the car industry.

They argue that the automakers knew for years of the dangerous flaw and did not act because they wanted to save money. Without it, our society would be in chaos. Compliance with legal standards is mandatory. If we violate these standards, we are subject to punishment as established by the law. Therefore, compliance generally refers to the extent to which a company conducts its business operations in accordance with applicable regulations, statutes, and laws.

Yet this represents only a baseline minimum. Ethical observance builds on this baseline and reveals the principles of an individual business leader or a specific organization. Ethical acts are generally considered voluntary and personal—often based on our individual perception of what is right and wrong. Some professions, such as medicine and the law, have traditional and established codes of ethics. The Hippocratic Oath , for example, is embraced by most professionals in healthcare today as an appropriate standard always owed to patients by physicians, nurses, and others in the field. This obligation traces its lineage to ancient Greece and the physician Hippocrates. Businesses are different in not having a mutually shared standard of ethics.

This is changing, however, as evidenced by the array of codes of conduct and mission statements many companies have adopted over the past century. These beliefs have many points in common, and their shared content may eventually produce a code universally claimed by business practitioners. What central point might constitute such a code? Essentially, a commitment to treat with honesty and integrity customers, clients, employees, and others affiliated with a business. The law is typically indebted to tradition and precedent, and compelling reasons are needed to support any change. Ethical reasoning often is more topical and reflects the changes in consciousness that individuals and society undergo.

Often, ethical thought precedes and sets the stage for changes in the law. Behaving ethically requires that we meet the mandatory standards of the law, but that is not enough. Entrepreneurs today need to focus not only on complying with the letter of the law but also on going above and beyond that basic mandatory requirement to consider their stakeholders and do what is right.

In , from mid-May to July, hackers gained unauthorized access to servers used by Equifax , a major credit reporting agency, and accessed the personal information of nearly one-half of the US population. To make amends to customers and clients in the aftermath of the hack, the company offered free credit monitoring and identity-theft protection.

On September 26, , the CEO resigned, days before he was to testify before Congress about the breach. Numerous government investigations and hundreds of private lawsuits have been filed as a result of the hack. The settlement covers million consumers, just under one-half of the population of the United States. Normative theories of ethics are primarily concerned with establishing standards or criteria that delineate what is considered ethical behavior. These ethical theories, discussed in the following paragraph, provide a systematic means of examining and evaluating business conduct. From an ethical theory perspective, Kantian or duty-based ethics emphasizes the underlying intent or reason behind a decision and whether that decision is good or bad.

For example, if the decision to raise the price of a lifesaving drug by 5, percent is moral and if it is intended to add value, then an individual is obligated to raise the price. Utilitarian ethics focuses on the usefulness or utility of the decision. If the decision to raise the price adds value and usefulness for shareholders, then that decision should be made. The Protestant work ethic looks at the decision from the viewpoint of capitalism, free markets, and a sense of duty to ensure maximum return on investment.

If the decision deals with a change that is financially sound and beneficial, if there are an adequate number of customers that need and value the HIV product and are willing to pay that price, then that decision should be made. Proponents of virtue ethics claim that ethics consists of a series of innate but latent virtues that an individual needs to develop over time. These virtues consist of trust and derivatives of trust such as truthfulness.

In this perspective, if the price hike is fair and equitable, if it is responsible to behave in this way, and if it does not cause harm to the society, then the price should be raised. A moral compass is a state of mind where an individual has developed the needed capabilities to differentiate between right and wrong, or between just and unjust in challenging circumstances. When individuals are able to act in an ethical manner systematically, habitually, and without struggling to decide how to act or what to do in difficult situations, they have internalized that moral compass.

It can be said that these individuals possess a good character, are able to earn trust, and have qualities that are deemed necessary for leadership. However, as you will learn, an entrepreneur needs to first provide the organizational framework and foundation in which individuals and business units regularly exercise these qualities. This framework and foundation include that everyone receive the right training, be given the opportunity to identify and close gaps in their behavior, receive recognition and incentives that reinforce good ethical behavior, and receive consistent, timely, and substantial consequences when they fail to act responsibly.

These and other actions begin to help individuals develop and internalize an ethical compass. A white-collar criminal convicted of fraud, this interview with Mark Faris shows his admission that greed, arrogance, and ambition were motivating factors in his actions. He also discusses the human ability to rationalize our behavior to justify it to ourselves. Note his proposed solutions: practicing ethical leadership and developing awareness at an individual level via corporate training. Unlike working in a large corporate environment with an established structure, entrepreneurs often create and operate a new business venture by their own rules.

The pressure to create a new venture, within constraints and limitations, inspires entrepreneurs to find innovative ways to meet potential market demands. At the same time, the challenge to meet these expectations can create temptations and ethical pressures as entrepreneurs make a variety of decisions. There are multiple reasons why an entrepreneur should be aware of intellectual property rights under the law.

For example, if a new startup business comes up with a unique invention, it is important to protect that intellectual property. Without such protection, any competitor can legally, even if not ethically, copy the invention, put their own name or company brand on it, and sell it as if it were their own. Intellectual property IP rights are created by federal law and protect small businesses from problems such as this. IP law also helps establish brand awareness and secure secondary revenue streams. IP applies to anything that is the exclusive right of a firm, will help differentiate that organization, and will contribute to a sustained competitive advantage. This creative work can result in a product idea, a new invention, an innovative pivot, or an improvement in an existing product or service.

IP can take the form of a patent, a copyright, a trademark, or a variation thereof called a trademark secret. It also means that the entrepreneur should be concerned with the nontechnical aspect of IP, which is to develop a culture of creativity that enables the organization to deliver a continuous stream of new IP. From a technical aspect, there are two different types of patents: utility and design patents Figure 3. A utility patent protects a brand-new product idea or invention under US law for a period of twenty years see the discussion on patents in Entrepreneurial Journey and Pathways. A design patent protects the ornamental aspects of a product idea. In the US, design patents are typically protected for a period of fourteen years.

Copyrights and trademarks are also protected IP Figure 3. A copyright grants the creator of a work the exclusive right to reproduction of the work for a specified period of time usually the life of the author plus seventy years. A trademark is a registration that provides the owner the ability to use a name, symbol, jingle, or character in conjunction with a specific product or service, and prevents others from using those same symbols to sell their products.

A trademark can be protected for an unlimited number of ten-year renewable terms as long as it is still in use. Finally, there is a special category of IP known as a trade secret. However, unlike patents, copyrights, and trademarks, a trade secret is not included as a protected category under federal IP law. A trade secret is dependent on being kept a secret by the business that owns it and is enforced through contract law. Entrepreneurs should pay especially close attention to the legal implications of how patent law can affect a business. Patent laws are strictly enforced and are intended to protect inventions. This protection is afforded because a continuous stream of innovations can be a major source of revenue for a firm as well as a vehicle for developing a sustained competitive advantage.

A legal patent gives an exclusive right to its patent holder or proprietor to use the invention in any shape or form they deem necessary. It also gives the patent holder the exclusive right to block or withhold access to others, or to sell the right to use the patent. This period of protection ranges from fourteen to twenty years, and is essentially a government-granted monopoly, after which, protection usually expires and competition is opened up to anyone e.

Regardless of its type, a firm has the exclusive rights to the ownership of its IP. To protect those rights, it is important that a firm meticulously and immediately document each IP, the process and timeline by which each IP was developed, the resources used to develop the IP, the details of who owns and has access to the IP, and how others can obtain and use the IP. Less formally, the development of a culture of creativity and innovation is one of the most important responsibilities of an entrepreneur.

This responsibility will enable the entrepreneur to develop a sustained competitive advantage. This means you should not be satisfied with an occasional spark of creativity from a designated individual, department, or functional area within your organization such as research and development. Sign up for cybersecurity newsletter and get latest news updates delivered straight to your inbox daily. Found this article interesting? Apple , Pegasus , spyware , zero-day. Latest Stories.

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