⌚ Fracking In The End Of Country

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Fracking In The End Of Country



Cothren, Jackson. You Fracking In The End Of Country commenting using your WordPress. Reservoir Fracking In The End Of Country. Greg Hands, new Fracking In The End Of Country and climate change minister. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPAhydraulic fracturing is a process Fracking In The End Of Country stimulate a natural gas, oil, Friar Laurence Is To Blame In Shakespeares Romeo And Juliet geothermal well to maximize extraction. This rankled environmentalists, who argue fracking may do little to ease global warming, given that wells and pipelines leak Fracking In The End Of Country quantities of methane Fracking In The End Of Country, a potent greenhouse gas. Breaking Identity Barriers Safety. However, based on experiences in other Fracking In The End Of Country U.

Prof. Wolff: China \u0026 the Fracturing of the American West

Fracking is a hotly debated environmental and political issue. Advocates insist it is a safe and economical source of clean energy; critics, however, claim fracking can destroy drinking water supplies, pollute the air, contribute to the greenhouse gases that cause global warming, and trigger earthquakes. Most fracking wells in use today rely on two technologies: hydraulic fracturing, which has been in use since the s, and horizontal drilling, a technique that first became widespread in the s , according to Columbia University's Earth Institute. In simplified terms, the fracking process starts with a well that is drilled vertically or at an angle from the surface to a depth of 1 to 2 miles 1.

Once the vertical well reaches the deep layer of rock where natural gas or oil exists, the well curves about 90 degrees and begins drilling horizontally along that rock layer. Horizontal drilling can extend more than 1 mile 1. After the fracking well is fully drilled and encased, fracking fluid is pumped down into the well at extremely high pressure, in some cases exceeding 9, pounds per square inch 62, kilopascals , according to a primer from Cornell University's environmental quality engineering course. The pressure is powerful enough to fracture the surrounding rock, creating fissures and cracks through which oil and gas can flow.

The fluid that is pumped into the well to fracture the rock is called slickwater. It is mostly water, though it also can contain a wide range of additives and chemicals that serve an engineering purpose. Additives can include detergents, salts, acids, alcohols, lubricants and disinfectants. These chemical additives usually make up 0. Department of Energy. In addition to the water and chemical additives, "proppants" such as sand and ceramic particles are also pumped into the fracking well. These proppants are added to prop open the fractures that form under pressure, thereby ensuring that gas and oil can continue to flow freely out of rock fractures even after pumping pressure is released, according to the EPA.

Once the underground rock is shattered and proppants are pumped into place, trapped reservoirs of gas and oil are released and pumped back to the surface, along with millions of gallons of "flowback" liquid, according to the EPA. The flowback liquid contains water and a number of contaminants, including radioactive material, heavy metals, hydrocarbons and other toxins. This wastewater is stored on the fracking site in pits, injected into deep underground wells or disposed of off-site at a wastewater treatment facility.

Though fracking is used worldwide to extract gas and oil, a fracking boom has occurred recently in the United States, partly driven by concerns over the costs associated with imported oil and other fossil fuels as well as energy security — that is, having uninterrupted access to energy at affordable prices in ways that are preferably impervious to international disruptions, according to the Brookings Institution. In , there were about , natural gas wells in the United States. But by , that number had almost doubled to ,, according to the U. Department of Energy DOE. And every year, about 13, new wells are drilled.

According to a study, at least The areas where fracking is most profitable include the Great Plains from Canada south into Texas, the Great Lakes region and an area known as the Marcellus Shale, which reaches from central New York into Ohio and south to Virginia, according to the U. The Marcellus Shale region is particularly attractive to gas drillers because it's a rich supply of natural gas — some call it " the Saudi Arabia of natural gas " or " Frackistan " — and because many of the region's rural communities are economically depressed and eager to attract an energy industry that enjoys handsome profits.

Proponents of fracking claim that the drilling technique is a safe and clean method of securing essential sources of power that will meet U. But opponents say the industry is whitewashing fracking's real effects, a long list that includes air pollution, groundwater contamination, health problems and surface water pollution. Recent history supports some of their claims: A fracking well in Bradford County, Pa. When water is not available to fracking sites locally, it may be transported from other regions, ultimately drawing down available water from lakes and rivers across the country. Another major concern is water contamination, as there is risk chemicals used in the fracking process might leak back into local water supplies.

In a report, the EPA documented spills of hydraulic fracturing fluid. In thirteen of those cases the spill reached surface water supplies. The byproduct of fracking's water consumption is billions of gallons of wastewater, only small portions of which are re-used in the fracking process. The majority of wastewater is injected into underground wells, and what isn't injected is transported for treatment. The EPA highlights potential leakage from wastewater storage pits, or accidental releases during transport, as risks to drinking water supplies. In addition to air and water pollution, fracking can have long-term effects on the soil and surrounding vegetation.

The high salinity of wastewater spills can reduce the soil's ability to support plant life. Even though fracking has the potential to provide more oil and gas resources to consumers, the process of extraction has long-lasting negative impacts on the surrounding environment. Air pollution and water contamination due to the toxic chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing are the greatest concerns within fracking sites, while the need for wastewater disposal and shrinking water supplies are also pressing issues directly related to the procedure.

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