✍️✍️✍️ Essay On Indeterminate Sentencing
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COURSE UNIT 13 - THE INDETERMINATE SENTENCE OF LAW. (CRAD312)
Relinquish and permanently forfeit ownership or possession of all animals which are in the same household as the person. Not allowed to harbor, own, possess, keep or exercise control over any animal not residing in the household like working or volunteering at animal shelter for a period determined by the court. Pay all reasonable costs incurred for the care and maintenance of the animal involved in the crime and any other animal relinquished by the person to an animal shelter. If the person convicted of the crime of bestiality is not the owner of the animal involved in the crime, reimbursing the owner of the animal for all medical expenses incurred for treating the animal.
The person is guilty of a crime of the fourth degree, except that the person shall be guilty of a crime of the third degree if:. A person who performs a deviate sexual act with the intent to arouse or gratify his sexual desire is guilty of a class A misdemeanor. No person shall knowingly engage in sexual conduct with an animal or knowingly possess, sell, or purchase an animal with the intent that it be subjected to sexual conduct. No person shall knowingly organize, promote, aid, or abet in the conduct of an act involving any sexual conduct with an animal. However, if the person has been previously convicted of a sex crime any subsequent violation of this section is a Class 5 felony.
In addition to the penalty imposed the court may order that the convicted person do any of the following:. A the person's mouth, anus, or genitals and the anus or genitals of an animal; or. Also becomes a "reportable conviction or adjudication" for sexual offender registration program under Article West's RCWA In addition to the penalty imposed, the court may order that the convicted person do any of the following:. Commits an act of sexual gratification involving his or her sex organ and the sex organ, mouth or anus of an animal.
Commits an act of sexual gratification involving his or her sex organ, mouth or anus and the sex organ of an animal. Summary: This table details state laws prohibiting sexual conduct between humans and animals. The majority of states about 46 have some provision that criminalizes engaging in sexual conduct with animals. States are somewhat split between categorizing first offenses misdemeanors or felonies 21 misdemeanor, 25 felony, depending on severity of conduct in states like Nevada and Texas. Subsequent convictions may result in enhanced penalties in many states felony offenses for second or subsequent convictions. These laws may also require the perpetrator to undergo psychological counseling and may restrain future ownership of animals.
Full Site Search. Keywords or citation Is equal to Is not equal to Contains Contains any word Contains all words Starts with Does not start with Ends with Does not end with Does not contain Length is shorter than Length is longer than Regular expression Not regular expression. Bestiality Ala. A person commits the crime of bestiality if he or she knowingly: engages in or submits to any sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal; causes, aids, or abets another in engaging in any sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal; permits any sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal upon premises under his or her control; or organizes, promotes, conducts, advertises, aids, abets, observes, or performs any service furthering an act involving sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal for a commercial or recreational purpose.
Cruelty to animals A. A person commits cruelty to animals if the person knowingly engages in sexual conduct with an animal; or photographs or films, for purposes of sexual gratification, a person engaged in sexual conduct with an animal; or causes, induces, aids, or encourages another person to engage in sexual conduct with an animal; or intentionally permits sexual conduct with an animal to be conducted on any premises under the person's control. The court may also require forfeiture of any animal affected to the state or to a custodian that supplies shelter, care, or medical treatment for the animal; require the defendant to reimburse the state or a custodian for all reasonable costs incurred in providing necessary shelter, care, veterinary attention, or medical treatment for any animal affected; prohibit or limit the defendant's ownership, possession, or custody of animals for up to 10 years.
Bestiality A. Engaging in oral sexual contact, sexual contact or sexual intercourse with an animal or causing another person to engage in such conduct. Class 6 felony Except that bestiality is class 3 felony if person causes another to engage in bestiality if the other person is a minor under fifteen years of age. A person commits bestiality if he or she performs or submits to any act of sexual gratification with an animal involving his or her or the animal's sex organs and the mouth, anus, penis, or vagina of the other.
Sexually assaulting animal; misdemeanor Cal. Any person who sexually assaults any animal protected by Section f for the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of the person. Cruelty to animals--aggravated cruelty to animals--cruelty to a service animal--restitution C. A person commits cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence engages in a sexual act with an animal.
The court shall order an evaluation to be conducted prior to sentencing to assist the court in determining an appropriate sentence. The person ordered to undergo an evaluation shall be required to pay the cost of the evaluation, unless the person qualifies for a public defender, then the cost will be paid by the judicial district. If the evaluation results in a recommendation of treatment and if the court so finds, the person shall be ordered to complete an anger management treatment program or any other treatment program that the court may deem appropriate.
Sexual assault in the fourth degree: Class A misdemeanor or class D felony C. Bestiality 11 Del. A person intentionally engages in any sexual act involving sexual contact, penetration or intercourse with the genitalia of an animal or intentionally causes another person to engage in any such sexual act with an animal for purposes of sexual gratification. Sexual activities involving animals West's F. A person may not: a Knowingly engage in any sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal; b Knowingly cause, aid, or abet another person to engage in any sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal; c Knowingly permit any sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal to be conducted on any premises under his or her charge or control; or d Knowingly organize, promote, conduct, advertise, aid, abet, participate in as an observer, or perform any service in the furtherance of an act involving any sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal for a commercial or recreational purpose.
Bestiality Ga. A person commits the offense of bestiality when he performs or submits to any sexual act with an animal involving the sex organs of the one and the mouth, anus, penis, or vagina of the other. Crime Against Nature--Punishment I. Every person who is guilty of the infamous crime against nature, committed with mankind or with any animal. Sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal I. Class 4 felony A person who violates this Section in the presence of a person under 18 years of age or causes the animal serious physical injury or death is guilty of a Class 3 felony. Not harbor animals or reside in any household where animals are present for a reasonable period of time or permanently, if necessary.
Relinquish and permanently forfeit all animals residing in the household to a recognized or duly organized animal shelter or humane society. Undergo a psychological evaluation and counseling at defendant's expense. Reimburse the animal shelter or humane society for any reasonable costs incurred for the care and maintenance of the animal involved in the sexual conduct or sexual contact in addition to any animals relinquished to the animal shelter or humane society. Bestiality I. A person who knowingly or intentionally performs an act involving: 1 a sex organ of a person and the mouth or anus of an animal; 2 a sex organ of an animal and the mouth or anus of a person; 3 any penetration of the human female sex organ by an animal's sex organ; or 4 any penetration of an animal's sex organ by the human male sex organ; commits bestiality.
A person who performs a sex act "sex act" means any sexual contact between a person and an animal by penetration of the penis into the vagina or anus, contact between the mouth and genitalia, or by contact between the genitalia of one and the genitalia or anus of the other with an animal. The court shall require the person to submit to a psychological evaluation and treatment at the person's expense. Criminal sodomy; aggravated criminal sodomy K. Criminal sodomy involves: sodomy between a person and an animal causing a child under 14 years of age to engage in sodomy with any person or an animal. Subsection a 2 between person and animal is a class B nonperson misdemeanor. A person is guilty of sexual crimes against an animal if he or she: a Engages in sexual contact with an animal; b Advertises, solicits, offers, or accepts the offer of an animal, or possesses, purchases, or otherwise obtains an animal, with the intent that the animal be subject to sexual contact; or c Causes, aids, or abets another person to engage in sexual contact with an animal.
In addition to the penalty imposed in subsection 3 of this section, the court shall order a person convicted of violating this section to: a Relinquish custody of all animals under the person's control. An animal returned to an owner under this section shall not be spayed or neutered prior to being returned; b Not harbor, own, possess, or exercise control over any animal, reside in any household where animals are present, or work or volunteer in a place where the person has unsupervised access to animals for a minimum of five 5 years after completion of the imposed sentence; c Attend an appropriate treatment program or obtain psychiatric or psychological counseling, at the person's expense; and d Reimburse the agency caring for the animal for reasonable costs incurred for the care and treatment of the animal from the date of impoundment until the disposition of the criminal proceeding.
Sexual abuse of an animal LSA-R. Sexual abuse of an animal is the knowing and intentional performance of any of the following: 1 Engaging in sexual contact with an animal. Additional provisions: a Relinquish custody of all animals. Cruelty to animals 17 M. Class D crime misdemeanor If, at the time of the offense, the defendant has 2 or more prior convictions for violations of this section, section or essentially similar crimes in other jurisdictions, violation of this paragraph is a Class C crime.
Ownership restrictions: The court may prohibit the defendant from owning, possessing or having on the defendant's premises an animal or animals as determined by the court for a period of time, up to and including permanent relinquishment. Psychological counseling: The court as part of the sentence may order, as a condition of probation, that the defendant be evaluated to determine the need for psychiatric or psychological counseling and, if it is determined appropriate by the court, to receive psychiatric or psychological counseling at the defendant's expense. A person may not: 1 take the sexual organ of another or of an animal in the person's mouth; 2 place the person's sexual organ in the mouth of another or of an animal; or 3 commit another unnatural or perverted sexual practice with another or with an animal.
Cruelty to animals M. Ownership restrictions and forfeiture: Upon a conviction, the defendant shall forfeit the animal whose treatment was the basis of the conviction to the custody of an entity incorporated under the laws of the commonwealth for the prevention of cruelty to animals or for the care and protection of homeless or suffering animals. Also, the defendant shall not: i work in any capacity that requires the person to be in contact with an animal, including a commercial boarding or training establishment, shelter, animal control facility, pet shop, grooming facility, commercial breeder service, veterinary hospital or clinic or animal welfare society or other nonprofit organization incorporated for the purpose of providing for and promoting the welfare, protection and humane treatment of animals; or ii harbor, own, possess or exercise control over an animal, reside in a household where any animals are present or engage in an occupation, whether paid or unpaid, or participate in a volunteer position at any establishment where animals are present for any length of time that the court deems reasonable for the protection of all animals; provided, however, that the length of time shall not be less than 5 years after the person's release from custody.
Crime against nature or sodomy; penalty M. Any person who commits "the abominable and detestable crime against nature either with mankind or with any animal. Felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not more than 15 years. Bestiality M. Sodomy Miss. Every person who commits a "detestable and abominable crime against nature committed with mankind or with a beast. Unlawful sex with an animal, crime, penalty V. A person commits the crime of unlawful sex with an animal if that person engages in sexual conduct with an animal or engages in sexual conduct with an animal for commercial or recreational purposes.
Class A misdemeanor unless the defendant has previously been convicted under this section, in which case the crime is a class D felony. In addition to penalty imposed, court may: Prohibit the defendant from harboring animals or residing in any household where animals are present during the period of probation or if probation is not granted for a period of time not to exceed 2 years after the defendant's sentence is completed; Order all animals in the defendant's possession subject to a civil forfeiture action; or Order psychological evaluation and counseling of the defendant at the defendant's expense.
Deviate sexual conduct MCA Indecency with an animal; penalty Neb. A person commits indecency with an animal when such person subjects an animal to sexual penetration as defined in section The sentencing court may order the defendant to reimburse a public or private agency for expenses incurred in conjunction with the care, impoundment, or disposal of an animal involved in the violation of such section. Bestiality N. A person commits the crime of bestiality if the person knowingly and intentionally: a Engages in sexual conduct with an animal; b Causes another person to engage in sexual conduct with an animal or aids or abets another person in engaging in sexual conduct with an animal; c Permits any sexual conduct with an animal to be conducted on any premises under the control of the person; d Engages in, organizes, promotes, conducts, advertises, aids, abets, participates in and is physically present as an observer, or performs any service in the furtherance of an act involving any sexual conduct with an animal; or e Photographs or films, for purposes of his or her sexual gratification or the sexual gratification of another person, a person engaged in sexual conduct with an animal.
Relinquish and permanently forfeit ownership or possession of all animals which are in the same household as the person Not allowed to harbor, own, possess, keep or exercise control over any animal not residing in the household like working or volunteering at animal shelter for a period determined by the court. Undergo a psychological evaluation and any recommended counseling. A person commits bestiality by knowingly committing any of the following acts: a Engaging in sexual contact or sexual penetration with an animal for the purpose of sexual arousal or gratification.
Any person convicted of a violation of this section shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor for a first offense and a class B felony for a second or subsequent offense. Cruelty; level of criminal offense N. It shall be unlawful to: 4 Use, or cause or procure the use of, an animal or creature in any kind of sexual manner or initiate any kind of sexual contact with the animal or creature, including, but not limited to, sodomizing the animal or creature.
This term does not include any medical procedure performed by a licensed veterinarian practicing veterinary medicine or an accepted animal husbandry practice. Felony The person is guilty of a crime of the fourth degree, except that the person shall be guilty of a crime of the third degree if: a the animal or creature dies as a result of the violation; b the animal or creature suffers serious bodily injury as a result of the violation; or c the person has a prior conviction for an offense that would constitute a violation of paragraph 1 , 2 , 3 or 4 of subsection c. If a juvenile is adjudicated delinquent for an act which, if committed by an adult, would constitute a disorderly persons offense, crime of the fourth degree, or crime of the third degree pursuant to this section, the court also shall order the juvenile to receive mental health counseling by a licensed psychologist or therapist named by the court for a period of time to be prescribed by the licensed psychologist or therapist.
A person is guilty of sexual misconduct when he or she engages in sexual conduct with an animal or a dead human body. Crime against nature N. Offenses relating to sexual conduct with an animal; impoundment R. If a court has reason to believe that a person who is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violation of section The court shall order the offender to pay the costs of the evaluation or counseling. Crime against nature 21 Okl. Punishable by imprisonment in the custody of the Department of Corrections not exceeding ten 10 years. Sexual assault of animal O. A person commits the crime of sexual assault of an animal if the person: Touches or contacts, or causes an object or another person to touch or contact, the mouth, anus or sex organs of an animal or animal carcass for the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of a person; or Causes an animal or animal carcass to touch or contact the mouth, anus or sex organs of a person for the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of a person.
Upon the conviction of a defendant for violation of ORS The crime of murder itself, committed by Black Widow killers, is extremely serious in that it requires attention. There is no way to fully understand the incidence of Black Widow murders, as it is possible for some to go undetected or possibly ruled as accidental deaths. The other crime of non-lethal romance scams discussed in this research is also a serious crime, which can result in high quantities of money lost, and great emotional pain for the victims. Although these two crimes are separate, the link between them has previously been weirdly unexplored.
This research aims to fill this knowledge gap, proposing Scamming Black Widow killers to be understood as one type of romance scam. This research explores the phenomenon of male rape and how the police recognise it, together with uncovering male rape myths in a local police force. Whilst male rape research is expanding, it was found that the police have a lack of knowledge, understanding, awareness, and specialised training of male rape. Moreover, because male rape is a part of sexual violence, feminist theory is used as a foundation for this project, since feminism seeks gender equality. Ultimately, this research emphasises the need for the police to adequately manage male rape victims and take male rape seriously, without any negative attitudes, ideas, views, perspectives, and beliefs.
Female rape attracts a lot of attention in the social sciences, but male rape is greatly overlooked by feminism, which searches to highlight the gendered nature of rape. As a result, there is a lack of numerical evidence on male rape, although it is necessary to classify the theoretical development of male rape as a social issue as it looms across the social research discourse. Therefore, it is important to examine this growth because the current direction of the research on male rape has worrying ramifications for how male rape is theorised.
Male rape in the 21st century is problematic because males are still frightened to report for a wide range of reasons. Therefore, explanations of underreporting are examined, how male rape is considered in criminology, the police, and how male rape victims are construed within the law, prison, media, and support organisations. Ultimately, this dissertation stresses the need to account adequately for both female and male rape victims alike.
The effect of the media and what they can do cannot be ignored as it plays such a crucial part in daily life. This is highlighted by the recent Leveson inquiry which considered whether the press needed regulating. This thesis considers the effect of one of the fastest growing types of media, social media. In the UK alone, social network site Twitter registered around ten million users in Guardian, A large percentage of the UK now has access to these social networking sites. This study explores the changing nature of media representations of the British police and the implications that social media may have on perceptions of the police.
This will be achieved be examining the literature surrounding media representations of policing, followed by a discussion of five qualitative, primary research interviews with journalism students, which that examine the use of social media, engagement with police related content and influence of social media on opinions of the police. This thesis covers areas of media effects research that this author believes have not yet been addressed and so aims to fill a gap in the literature. Significantly, this research hopes to develop knowledge on, and allow the reader to understand the impact of the changing nature of media representations of the police on how the police are perceived.
The findings suggest that social media enables users to be more involved in the democratic processes of government organisations, but what also happens is that people may be exposed to more damaging footage of the police, take in smaller amounts of information and still be greatly influenced by mass media organisations, who are the main context setters of news. Public opinion may be no better informed then before. Representations become more complicated, and so views of the police become more extreme and varied, which in turn may create more tension over opinions on the police.
This dissertation aims to analyse and compare the ever-evolving illegal music industry, both past and present. The approach undertaken aims to supply a brief history of both bootlegging and piracy, and to determine the actual financial impact the illegal music industry has had on official record sales. Whilst the numbers of reported rapes has steadily increased, the conviction rate does not reflect this. The offence of Rape has the highest attrition rate of all serious crime and the contention is this is often due to insufficient evidence. This may be due to poor investigative interviewing of victims by the Police, hence the requirement for this research. This dissertation met the research aim through an extensive study of the relevant literature and the implementation of a multi-method approach, designed to collect empirical data from practitioners with expertise in the research area.
The latter was carried out via semi-structured interviews and an evaluation of interviews conducted with rape victims. The findings were analysed in an attempt to assess the current quality of evidence of non-consent. Since the events of September 11th the international community has explored various measures of tackling terrorism, one of these measures and one which has been explored less is the tackling of terrorism financing.
President Bush announced the first stage of the War on Terrorism with an attack against the terrorist financial infrastructure, but since then there has been relatively little focus on this tactic. Due to the activities of al-Qaeda being mainly under the radar, this study only offers an exploration and insight into the vulnerabilities and effectiveness of the measures targeted at terrorist financing.
Therefore it was not possible to offer a full conclusion on the findings and the effectiveness of the measures targeted at them. The findings on Informal Value Transfer Systems IVTS suggested that the system could be as clean and only as vulnerable to terrorist financing as the formal banking system for example. However as it has been stressed in this study, as there is no effective measure to confirm what effect any tactic deployed against al-Qaeda is having it cannot be said for certain.
The findings on Islamic charities suggested that this source of terrorist financing is much more vulnerable to terrorist financing than the other two areas discussed. The reasons found for this were that the humanitarian consequences that these measures can cause make it difficult for governments and bodies to apply strict measures to this source. The final source discussed was businesses and financiers and the findings on this area were found to be the most inconclusive, as there were many conflicting opinions from authors present. Does Secondary Psychopathy Exist? A growing body of theory and related research has proposed the idea that psychopathy may be no longer consist of a homogenous population of individuals who share common etiological and phenotypic features.
Rather, it is now proposed that psychopathy may be further segregated into primary and secondary variants that score similarly on measures of psychopathy e. Psychopathy Checklist — Revised PCL-R; Hare, , and yet differ in elements of their personality, behaviour and the etiological factors implicated in their development. Utilising secondary research in order to conduct a critical review of the related literature, this study set out with the primary aim to critically evaluate evidence for the existence of a secondary variant of psychopathy. Further to this, a secondary aim was to investigate historical and contemporary conceptualisations of psychopathy and its operationalisation through its measures.
The overall aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of youth mentoring as a criminal justice intervention. In addition, it examines the importance of a meaningful relationship between a youth and their mentor in achieving a successful mentoring outcome. A comprehensive review of the current literature in relation to youth mentoring suggests that it can have a number of benefits, including increased school competency, enhanced social skills and improved family relationships to name a few; however, the findings do not support its use as a criminal justice intervention on such a large scale, as the impact it has on offending is argued to be modest at best.
As youth mentoring is an increasingly popular method of crime reduction and prevention in the United Kingdom UK , it is important to examine its effectiveness in greater detail. A case study of a sixteen year-old youth and his male mentor from a local Youth Offending Team was carried out using two semi-structured interviews. Through a process of thematic analysis, it is suggested that youth mentoring can have a significant impact on a young person in a number of ways, particularly in the presence of a good quality relationship between mentee youth and mentor. It is argued that the media is the main instigator of moral panics and that their depiction of male and female offenders of CSA differs based on their predisposed gender roles.
An extensive literature review was undertaken in order to explore the differences between how male and female offenders of CSA are portrayed. Females who commit CSA go against their predisposed gender roles and carry out their offences under the guise of motherhood. Male offenders, on the other hand, are deemed evil and the use of the term paedophile is broadly applied giving society a false impression of sex offenders.
It is also noted within this dissertation that the CJS respond differently depending on the sex of the offender. Female offenders appear to be taken less seriously whereas male offenders are vilified as a gendered group and the media takes it upon themselves to take vigilante action or encourage vigilante action as they perceive themselves as being the guardians of society. It was found that moral panics about male offenders of CSA are more prevalent than female offenders of CSA and this could be due to the consensus that CSA offenders are only male and that the few cases involving females are due to male coercion or not believed.
This was found to be not true in the case of people such as Rose West who was sexually deviant before she met Fred West. It is suggested that the media with their influential ability should educate society rather than focus on playing on the fears of society and that the CJS needs more training with regards to female offenders. Restorative Justice has been used informally by other names for many years, but it is only recently that it has become a source for widespread debate. With the current economic crises, finding the most effective way of combatting recidivism and so reducing the cost of crime has become paramount in the eyes of the police, the public, and the government. Restorative Justice is often posited as a cheaper, more effective alternative to imprisonment, but it has the shortcoming of relying almost solely on the permission and participation of the victims.
This report seeks to discover and analyse possible barriers to victim engagement in Restorative Justice with a view to making recommendations on how to remove or alleviate these. By creation of a Literature Review, it was discovered that, although popular media represents a usually negative view of Restorative Justice, the majority of victims and offenders in studies discussed felt positively about it. The statistics also showed Restorative Justice in a good light when considering recidivism. However, there were no projects that addressed victims of assault in Derby. To this end, a questionnaire was created and completed by thirty victims of assault selected through Witness Service in Derby.
The answers were then analysed to fully benefit from the information within and the results were presented within coding frames. It was found that Restorative Justice was not a well-known practise, with less than half of the sample having previous awareness of the scheme. It was also found that there was a great deal of confusion concerning perceived effectiveness of the scheme, and there were few that answered directly to the questions over choosing an ambivalent answer. Overall, there was a general view that Restorative Justice can be good for both victims and offenders in certain situations, but can also be damaging if not applied properly.
This paper is written to address the role of the victim in the criminal justice process. Secondary data analysis is the method used for the research. The reader is taken through the historical approaches to victim involvement in the criminal justice process, to contemporary issues that victims of crime face, the paper goes on to discuss changes that should be made for the justice system to leave victims more satisfied with their involvement. Multiple approaches pertaining to violent and minor crime are taken into consideration. In addition the perceptions of how harmful drugs can to be. This will be done through self-completion questionnaires from a sample of 42 students from the University of East London.
One of the main aims of the UK drug policy is to deter the public from consuming illegal drugs. However, previous studies have shown that young people have the highest level of illegal drug consumption, suggesting that drug policy is not working as effectively as it could be. The results of this study indicated a lack of knowledge on the current drugs policy and varying views of the harms drugs carry. Both were carried out by party-politicians and supported by academics, yet these calls were rejected by Prime Minister David Cameron who stated that current approaches were succeeding BBC, Moreover, at the time of writing, Brighton council is considering the use of decriminalised drug-use rooms, attracting similar criticism BBC, c.
Why is the case? Why is the UK reluctant to adopt such consequentialist approaches to policing drugs when other nations are seeing successes and endorsements from professionals? What is the cultural context behind this? This thesis is a literary analysis that presents a cultural comparison of the UK and Portugal to establish cultural explanations as to why the UK is reluctant in adopting consequentialist drug approaches when compared to other nations. The importance of understanding the influences cultural context possess regarding drug policy development is highlighted.
Therefore if there are any desires to change policy, cultural change is recommended for acceptance. Cruel and Unusual. Secondary research was used to gather the relevant studies together from both countries perspective in a cross cultural exploration using an implicit binary comparison of United Kingdom and America, to discuss the question of cruel and usual punishments. Legislation from both countries was discussed, with the intention of highlighting the key comparisons and differences. Research indicated United Kingdom has sufficiently less sex offenders per 10, people than America. The face of policing is changing. This research examines the impact that the role of a police officer has on those who perform it. Through semi-structured, qualitative interviews, it explores the various pressures that are placed on officers throughout their role; the impact these have upon them as people; and the way in which they live their lives.
In doing so, it seeks to determine whether policing is a lifestyle choice. For the first time in over 30 years, police forces in England and Wales are being subjected to significant reforms at the recommendation of Tom Winsor. Moreover, due to governmental cuts to funding, there is now more demand than ever on the police to be an efficient, effective and resourceful public service. This climate of transition and change within policing, forms the context within which this research enquiry sits. Whilst these changes have only just begun to take effect, invariably they have, and will, continue to create additional pressures with which officers must contend. Thus, during a time when police officers are placed, more than ever, at the forefront of public and political scrutiny, it is important that the pressures engendered within their contemporary role are fully understood and, crucially, do not go unrecognised.
Currently, police performance is quantified, for these stakeholders, through numerical performance indicators. However, the findings of this research have led the researcher to question how practicable this really is, and whether measuring performance in this way is unintentionally hindering officers, the police service, the government and, potentially, the social recovery of society. This research analysis set out to examine and explore the relationship between neoliberalism and social harm theory in the US and the UK, to see if the effects of neoliberalism can be described as social harms.
This exploration included the definition of the perceived notion of crime and how certain harms are not valued under criminal law. It used previous literature to assess and discover the impacts neoliberalism as a form of capitalism has on society in terms of its political ideologies. Whilst also developing an understanding of the argument from critical criminologists who suggest a move to the social harm approach would be beneficial. The interest in this research was born out of the financial crisis, its causes and the responses to it.
From this analysis it can be seen that there is a strong link between neoliberalism and the production of social harms. It was concluded that further research is required to push forward the need for these social harms to be recognised as unlawful. This project examined the phenomenon of human trafficking in the context of sexual exploitation. It focused on women and children, as the victims, because these groups are the most vulnerable.
Furthermore, it presented methods of recruitment, reasons for targeting particular types of people and the consequences the victims suffer from sex trafficking. The international routes of human trade within Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States were also outlined. This included forms of transport and passage, destination countries and origin points. Human trafficking was defined and its occurrence and existence historically was critically evaluated. Furthermore, development of international legislations and awareness raised within the countries where the problem exists was presented. Moreover, this project illustrated different perceptions of trafficking which are linked to creation of diverse laws and approaches by various states to tackle this crime.
The concept of domestic violence has predominantly been understood within a heterosexual context where women are situated as the victims of both her gender and by her partner. Very little research has been conducted to explore domestic violence in non-heterosexual relationships. Many misconceptions have surrounded the occurrence of abusive behaviours within the relationships of gay men, which have most importantly contributed to its concealment, rejection and fundamentally its very existence as a problematic issue that society faces within the contemporary world.
Therefore, this study pursues to unravel and enlighten this topic by exploring how such violent behaviour is caused, constituted, constructed and understood in late modernity by those gay men who have been subjected to it. The data gathered has been thematically analysed using grounded theory to explore what appear to be the central causes, processes and societal perspectives of the topic.
The notion of crystallisation has also been used to drive its exploratory aim in providing a deepened understanding of domestic violence from various viewpoints. The findings indicate that domestic violence within the intimate relationships of gay men lack recognition, are misconceived, gay men struggle to self realise their victimized position and that current service provisions are inconsistent as well as ineffective at confronting the problem due to both heterosexist and sexist stereotypes.
Ultimately, the study demonstrates that through exploring the lives of gay men, domestic violence is potentially an occurring feature within the discourse of a gay mans life, and that exploration must be continued if a thorough understanding of such a concealed topic is to be revealed. I shop therefore I am; does the society of consumption drive criminal activity in late liquid modernity? This small scale research project utilises secondary analysis of 6 texts to lay the foundations into the study of criminal motivation in an increasingly individualised society. In order to achieve this it traces the history of criminology as a science and consumption as a socially constructed phenomenon back to their inceptions.
It explores how consumption has become the grand narrative in contemporary society and examines the political and economic context in which this has flourished. It traces criminological thought back to its founders and assess the impact on which it has on modern criminological thought, whilst noting the flaws in its foundations. It will argue and demonstrate how desire has been manipulated in the core of our biological being and harnessed into consumerism allowing the Kenyan capitalist economic system to grow. It will show the relationship this holds to modern criminal activity. This paper will conclude that access to the consumption market is the Holy Grail for modern citizens and criminal activity is a result of exclusion to this market and of a revolutionizing process of repression from our basic animalistic drives.
It will also show that criminology as an academic discipline and practical science needs to move away from its preoccupation with controlling crime risks and encourage more original thought into discovering individual criminal motivations, rather than nostalgically comparing out dated and flawed theories. In an attempt to make sense of this 15 year crime drop, Criminologists have been proposing many different explanations, all of which suffer from a lack of evidence to provide validity and reliability.
The idea is that this 15 year crime drop is partly due to the unintended consequences of some form of relatively new human activity or invention. The proposition put forward within this dissertation is whether the advancement in entertainment and communications media has played a part in this crime recession. The argument is that this advancement in media technology has provided a substitute and a distraction from committing real life crime. The new emerging trend in Criminology has been to cite Routine Activities Theory as an explanation for the crime drop, and given that the advancement in entertainment and communications media has been an obvious change in society, the theory has been incorporated into this study.
Ultimately, however, it is clear that the study suffers from the same lack of evidence and support that other explanations suffer, and that further research is needed in order to validate the research. At present, the research is very much down to individual opinion. The following socio-criminological study seeks to discover how modern society perceives early childhood aggression as a predictor of future antisocial behaviour. This report investigates links of causal factors of aggression and antisocial criminality, through the collection of published literature, public surveys and professional interview analysis.
The current interest however lies with the causes of antisocial behaviour- much established research being dedicated to the causal factors of violent offending. Early aggression is on the other hand sparsely investigated within published research; however authors that have made the link and covered this topic show that it is an important area to consider further research into, to satisfy the ultimate aim of adequate crime prevention. This report investigates links of causal factors of aggression and antisocial criminality through the collection and critique of published literature, public surveys and professional interview analysis. Within this paper you will find a literature review, a research proposal and a final report- consisting of analyses of the data collected.
The best response to this network of terror is to build a network of our own -- a network of like-minded countries and organizations that pools resources, information, ideas, and power. Furthering this, an empirical content analysis of the Action Plan and related EU counter-terrorism documents and their evolution since September 11th highlight the overriding ambiguity-conflict nexus within EU counter-terrorism initiatives. The purpose of this study is to distinguish the useful and harmful aspects of Fractional Reserve Act is. This study concludes by stating that the act is destructive in nature and needs to be readdressed.
This study analyses the Act, questioning its moral legitimacy and practicality. It analyses how the Act was created, who published it, why it was created and how useful it is for society. As a result of this research, the harms this Act has created are exposed. The authors and publishers of the Act are criticised for manipulating policy in order to achieve private agendas.
The Significance of Regulating Prostitution. This dissertation will focus on the significance of regulating prostitution. The UK Government currently regulates prostitution because the conduct attracts many problems such as drug use, violence, public nuisance, organised crimes, human trafficking, child prostitution, and exploitation. However, these problems are still present in the UK. Thus, there have been suggestions that perhaps the UK should take a different approach to prostitution to tackle these problems more effectively. This dissertation will aim to formulate a framework for the UK Government that will best tackle these drastic problems.
This dissertation will present an evaluation of prostitution and prostitution laws in history. This dissertation will specify whether prostitution should be accepted as a trade like any other lawful trades or whether the UK should view prostitution as oppression, slavery, and coercion. Finally, there will be an investigation into the reform proposals to demonstrate the significance of regulating prostitution and whether any changes to the current UK laws and policies on prostitution could be made in order to pragmatically tackle the underlying problems of prostitution. This is to determine whether the proposed increase in the use of restorative justice could decrease recidivism rates of young offenders, or whether the current criminal justice system has a greater ability to achieve this.
The major difference between the current criminal justice system and restorative justice is that, whilst the current criminal justice system focuses predominantly on punishing the offender, restorative justice concentrates on addressing the underlying reasons for the behaviour and the perspective of the victim. This difference is focussed on throughout the analysis. The detailed reasons for this finding are discussed in this research. The wide availability of the internet has brought massive changes in the ways by which communication can be achieved and in many instances have replaced traditional methods of correspondence. Increasingly popular is the use of social network sites which are one of the many ways by which computer mediated communication can be achieved.
The massive growth of this sort of interaction has consequently attracted a large amount of media attention particularly following incidents of criminal activity that came to light. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the extent and nature of criminal activity of most popular social networking site, Facebook, and to determine whether the risks and warnings highlighted in the news and other media regarding the use of social network sites are justified. Through the method of Critical Discourse Analysis this dissertation examined how female co-offenders are portrayed in comparison to their male counterparts within different forms of media.
Existing literature on gender assumptions and the notions of masculinity and femininity and how they are reiterated in relation to the offender within the media sphere, were vital in not only providing the foundations for this dissertation but also the focus for the analysis. Concentrating on two different cases of male and female co-offending; Vanessa George and Colin Blanchard and Maxine Carr and Ian Huntley, a review of the literature relating to each of the partnerships was initially undertaken before critically analysing the linguistic features of a selection of headlines and two documentaries relating to each of the cases.
Informed by the literature, due to the preconceptions surrounding femininity it was predicted that within both forms of media the female offender in each case would receive the majority of the negative attention and due to their gender would be demonised far more than the male. Whilst the analyses of both sets of headlines revealed this to be true, interestingly the documentary relating to Maxine Carr appeared to take on a far more balanced stance. This project will aim to identify why imprisonment is considered to be the primary and most preferable form of punishment within England and Wales.
To do this, historical and traditional notions of the penal system will be considered in depth before it is ascertained if such values are outdated, unjustifiable or ineffective in modern society. The penal system will be largely deconstructed in an attempt to remove normative and familiar assumptions and rhetoric that may taint objectivity of judgements. Essentially, this means that the penal system will be stripped of societal connotations in so far as is possible given the arguable subjectivity of all human debate , in an attempt to reach a non-prejudiced, non-perverted conclusion about the justifiability of imprisonment as punishment, and the subsequent consequences that has for offenders.
How Punitive are the British Public? In a modern day society dominated by a culture of crime and punishment there has been an increased use of prisons which has resulted in the prison population in England and Wales reaching an all time high. This persistent use of prisons has resulted in an increasingly vulnerable population being in the care of the state. This is where the charity INQUEST has been instrumental in supporting and campaigning for the rights of these prisoners and their families. This dissertation examined the work of INQUEST including their main achievements and problems they face as a counter hegemonic organisation.
To discover this information, a vast amount of data was gathered from various staff members at INQUEST, historically right through to the present day. The highly recognisable and iconic nature of the police uniform is arguably the most powerful tool of the police trade. This study uses qualitative interview data obtained from nine police officers accessed via a Police Neighbourhood Team over a two week period in December The resulting data was used in an attempt to explore the links between power, authority and the wearing of the police uniform and to discuss the social impact their occupation has on their lives outside the force.
Contemporary Controversies Surrounding Capital Punishment: How does the deterrence theory, victim participation and human rights impact upon current debate? This dissertation examines three issues of capital punishment that are central to current debate. The areas that are of concern include: the efficacy of the deterrent effect, the role and impact for victims in capital cases and human rights influences.
In the evaluation of the deterrence effect, the retrospective data revealed that murders and sanctions are independent phenomena. A comparison of abolitionist and retentionist states in the United States of America informed us that there is no apparent correlation between imposing the death penalty and a reduction in the average homicide rate. There are various other social and demographic factors that may have more impact upon crime.
It is argued that the four main dimensions of punishment that the deterrence theory relies upon — severity, certainty, celerity, and publicity — are not exercised sufficiently for the death penalty to act as an effective to deterrent to murder in the United States of America. Women in Prison: A Forgotten Population? This dissertation examines the gendered experiences of women in prison. As a result, there is a view that women are being disadvantaged in terms of the delivery of services within the prison regime including access to appropriate prison rehabilitation programmes and healthcare provision.
The literature review identifies the differences in the way men and women experience prison through examples of discrimination. It also highlights the key differences between male and female prisoners including offence type, life experiences and coping mechanisms therefore recognising them as a unique group in need of specialised treatment. However, an investigation into prison rehabilitation programmes and the specific issues facing women in custody such as gynaecological health, pregnancy and childcare, revealed a distinct lack of gender-specifity in available services.
It concludes that the small numbers of female prisoners have been subsumed into the majority male population and as a consequence, their needs are failing to be met during custody. This reduces the overall effectiveness of imprisonment as a punitive sanction for women offenders, suggesting that perhaps an entirely new approach is needed. The crime drop of the western industrialised world has baffled criminologists of late, defying all predictions. Despite numerous attempts to explain it, no consensus has arisen as to the cause.
Therefore, incorporating numerous hypotheses may be the way forward in order to formulate a more comprehensive understanding of the reasons for the decline in crime. The hypothesis presented by this dissertation aims to contribute to that, examining whether improvements to and widespread availability of media entertainment and communication devices have caused the crime drop, specifically in the UK.
When comparing statistics from the British Crime Survey regarding victimisation in England and Wales with independent research into ownership and use of leisure and communication technologies, strong visible relationships were found. Routine Activity Theory is used to examine the possible effect that ownership and usage trends of these technologies has on crime victimisation. Since Routine Activity Theory could not explicate the reasons for these potential effects, the dissertation speculates various possible explanations for the effect. It is found that the hypothesis is plausible and can be applied to many victimisation crimes, though it is only a partial explanation and must work in conjunction with other hypotheses in order to mutually improve their effectiveness in explaining and continuing the crime drop.
This thesis questions the accepted use of typologies in an official capacity. To examine if typologies are of practical use in the study of serial homicide, potential implications of their use are critically discussed in five contexts, those of prevention, investigation, profiling, utilisation in court, and with respect to societal contentment. It is concluded that due to the inherent ambiguity of typological thinking and the inability of categorisation to characterise human behaviours, the use of such methods does more to impede understanding than it does to improve it.
Rather, such pursuits are borne out of a very human desire to understand, and hence control the uncontrollable. There has been much research in recent years into the causes of the well-known phenomenon that mentally impaired people tend to be over-represented as defendants in the criminal justice process. Less research, however, has been undertaken into why such defendants and suspects appear to be at a higher risk of making false confessions. This may be because it appears that there is a simple answer to this question: such suspects are mentally impaired and vulnerable to the pressures of the criminal justice system, particularly those involved in being interviewed by the police.
This is certainly one valid reason but it is by no means the only reason. Research suggests several causal factors are involved. This paper examines some of these causal factors and in doing so reveals the incremental nature of knowledge construction which various researchers have taken in their studies. Dispositional factors and situational factors are both instrumental in causing false confessions. The paper concludes that there is no one major factor that leads mentally impaired suspects to make false confessions more than suspects who are not mentally impaired but rather it is a combination of factors.
The aim of this study is to critically analyse whether imprisonment for women is a justifiable form of punishment, or whether alternative approaches are more appropriate. This work was conducted to determine the impact of human security concerns within security policies of, the dictatorships of Tunisia, Egypt and Libya upon the Arab Spring and the fall of the regimes in the region of Northern Africa in Discussion of this change aids an exploration of realist security policies adopted by Tunisian, Egyptian and Libyan authorities during the 20th century post-colonial state-building period.
What emerges from this is a discussion of how an ignorance of human security within continually realist security policies eventually led to the downfall of the dictatorial regimes when the legitimacy of those regimes was challenged by a changing international political and economic situation. The research area of imprisonment and its effects on inmates has had a long and complex history over the past decades, with researchers having varying opinions. Early researchers suggested that imprisonment had negative psychological and physical effects on its inmates, leading to psychological deterioration. More recent research, on the other hand, has suggested that imprisonment is not as detrimental as first thought. This review aims to provide an overview of the coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates in the prison environment.
Additionally, a systematic review methodology is adopted to examine the relationships between coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates. The objectives of this review were, firstly, to determine if coping strategies affect the adaptation, adjustment and well being of inmates and, secondly, to determine if institutional changes can improve inmate adjustment and coping. The results were mixed, but demonstrate that there is a complex relationship between the coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates and that institutional opportunities and changes can be beneficial.
The review concludes that there is a link between coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates and that therapeutic communities, such as those at HMP Grendon, would be useful in conventional prisons to help inmates adjust and reform. This dissertation examines both serial killers and terrorists in the hope that a more comprehensive understanding and look into their behaviour, can help counter their deviance.
In demonstrating the similarities and differences between the two, this dissertation aims to decipher if a terrorist could in fact be far more analogous to a serial killer than what is often believed. The findings of which unearth an ambidextrous dichotomy. Previous research suggests that peoples view of crime is not in line with official statistics and that people think crime is on the increase when official figure suggest that crime rates and in particular homicide rates are decreasing Mattinson and Mirrlees-Black, ; McDonald, ; Mitchell and Roberts, In recent years there has been an increase in the consumption of media, which has led to concerns about whether it is criminogenic. This research aims to evaluate the ways in which the media can be considered criminogenic via two outcomes — imitation of acts and incitement to crime.
In order to assess the influence of media on imitation and incitement, a secondary methodological approach has been utilised; a literature review was used to compile evidence from a number of resources — including books and journals accessed through Nottingham Trent University. In addition, this research makes use of newspaper articles to gather anecdotal evidence for the purpose of analysing imitative behaviour of fictional media.
This evidence provides details about specific cases of criminality, which is analysed in conjunction with the media individuals are purported to have imitated to evaluate the extent to which media is relevant in the cases discussed. Bentham Versus Kroppotkin: A view on the use of prison as a punishment for criminal behaviour. The prison is used as a major form of punishment and is currently the ultimate penalty given to criminals who break the law in contemporary society. However, despite its widespread use, the effectiveness of the prison has always been a widely debated controversial issue. Utilitarian Jeremy Bentham and anarchist Peter Kropotkin have presented opposing views on the use of the prison as a form of punishment. This dissertation will outline these two diverse perspectives.
This forms the basis of their conflicting solutions to reduce crime, in an attempt to answer whether the prison service is an effective form of punishment for criminal behaviour. On the other hand, Kropotkin demanded absolute abolition of the prison and all forms of authority within society, in order to allow for cooperation and mutual aid. However, despite their differences it is evident that both Bentham and Kropotkin would disagree with how the prison operates today.
As a result greater focus has been placed upon minority ethnic within England and Wales. Furthermore, since the rise of second wave feminism and the human rights agenda, violence against women within the UK has been increasingly recognised as a social problem. In this work I intend to outline measures which have been taken to curb Intellectual Property Crime by the media industry and consider how such measures have been effective in designing out crime.
Also an examination of the threat allegedly posed by file sharing to the media industry and if that threat is as great as the bodies and statistics claim? There is an exploration of Foucaldian notions of power and how they are stratified across the internet rather than being centred within one particular body or institution. An Investigation. The illicit drug trade is the largest transnational form of organised crime in the world and dates back well before any regulations were introduced to monitor or control such substances, or indeed, to respond to the problems it subsequently created. The detrimental impacts of this sustained problem, either with supply or demand, have become embedded in many nations which has allowed upper-level drug traffickers to increase their networks and control, often using violence as a weapon.
Despite the large profits generated from the drug trade, it is argued that the suffering caused by the high crime levels and costs to the economy is greater than that of the drugs themselves. The emergence of youth gangs in the UK in recent years has resulted in heightened media attention of the group, with sensationalised headlines appearing in newspapers relating to violent gang crimes which have led to the deaths of many young people.
This has resulted in the fear of groups of young people within communities, as well as a multitude of government responses. The aim of this dissertation was to identify the myths and realities surrounding the emergence of youth gangs in the UK in order to determine whether the media is fuelling a moral panic which in turn has led to inappropriate responses by the government. A literary based approach was utilised for this research in order to ascertain whether it is appropriate to apply the wide range of US literature to the UK situation.
The research focuses on the varying definitions of youth gangs, followed by an analysis of both US and UK subcultural explanations of the emergence of gangs and finally a look at how media moral panics influence government initiatives. Recommendations are also made, suggesting further areas for research as well as improvements which could be made to government policy and initiatives. Broccoli or Broken Windows? The relationship between anti social behaviour and a nutrient deficient diet. The differential extent of research into nutrition and malnutrition and the impact this has on externalising behaviours is vast.
It is generally accepted that nutrition and related factors such as food additives, hypoglycaemia and cholesterol plays an important role as a contributor of children and adults externalising behaviour, such as aggression or anti social behaviour, and as such much research has been carried out into the prevalence of this. Furthermore identifying the antecedents of anti social behaviour has also become prevalent in society today Rutter, Therefore, the following paper will explore the relationship between malnutrition and anti social behaviour.
According to some commentators, Britain is a place of heightened public insecurity and anxiety. It can be argued that in the UK successive governments since the s have utilised this fear, which in turn has provided the political legitimation for the increased use of situational crime prevention security measures. Paradoxically, visible signs of security hardware may make some people more fearful, sensing that high security must indicate high risk. This dissertation discusses whether situational crime prevention is modern society's 'trojan horse'. The intention of this dissertation was to examine the effectiveness of current practises in place by the criminal justice system to supervising sex offenders in the community.
While treatment techniques within a custodial setting have been investigated in previous research, there has been a deficiency in research once sex offenders are released. It considered legislation which has introduced such measures to monitor sex offenders upon their release from custody and analyses the methods and accuracy of risk assessments before reverting back to a debate which highlights the difficulties in balancing the human rights of the sex offender against the rights protecting the public. Having received the label of extremists by the media, this paper seeks to examine such claims that the English Defence League is an extremist organisation. What we hope to achieve is a more detailed understanding of the accusations being made against the EDL, as well as identifying who the EDL are and what they stand for.
The Person is Political. The central objective of this dissertation is to develop an understanding regarding the socio-economic issue of homelessness. The demise of the legal person Arthur Andersen LLC models the many miscarriages of justice, wrongful convictions and subsequent exonerations of real persons. The case shines a bright light into corners of the criminal justice system often ignored both by the mass media as well as by many criminal justice professionals. This dissertation provides a cross-section of the case. The intention of this research was to evaluate the Offender Assessment System OASys and to consider its role within the probation service. Primary research was conducted using the semi-structured interview in order to gain information on several a reas of interest in relation to OASys.
This included the length of time it takes to complete the assessment, any technical difficulties that occur, gender specific questions, the usefulness of OASys, the results and the relevancy of the information required. A snowball sample was used in order to gather the participants, which consisted of seven probation employees. It seems that currently there is very little literature or research evaluating the effectiveness of CCTV in reducing antisocial behaviour. As antisocial behaviour can be an antecedent to more serious crime it is important to know which initiatives are effective in reducing the likelihood of it occurring. The aim of the research was help to bridge the gap in knowledge in the area of the effectiveness of CCTV in reducing antisocial behaviour with the use of both primary and secondary sources.
The results were startling, showing CCTV to have little impact on the level of antisocial behaviour in one area and the opposite in another area. The interview with the Blackpool CCTV Unit and research has highlighted some interesting factors as to why these results may have occurred. The purpose of this dissertation is to ascertain why prison has emerged as a prominent form of punishment for most crime and to critically discuss the function of modern day prisons in relation to wider society. Following the Second World War the prison population in England and Wales increased dramatically and continues to rise, even though crime rates have reduced since As a result 82 of the prisons in England and Wales are overcrowded.
Yet we continue to sentence offenders to custody, since May a total of 1, new offences have been introduced which are punishable by imprisonment and the Ministry of Justice anticipate that the number of offenders behind bars will reach 95, by This thesis endeavours to explore why it is prison remains a popular form of punishment. This dissertation explores false and malicious allegations of rape made by women against men and the effect this has on the workings of the criminal justice system. These issues were investigated through both library based and primary research that took the form of semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample including a police officer specialising in the field of rape, a prosecuting barrister for the Crown Prosecution Service and someone who has recently been accused of rape.
Advocates of this viewpoint cite empirical literature that purports to show little evidence of displacement. A secondary analysis of this literature shows that displacement may in fact be more common than is widely claimed, particularly in the case of studies with offenders. Furthermore, the findings of the Kirkholt Burglary Prevention Project, which purport to demonstrate a diffusion of benefits, are shown to be based on questionable evidence. This dissertation therefore questions the accepted view of crime displacement, and the soundness of the evidence on which it is based; and recommends that a large scale research project should be conducted with offenders, to discover a more accurate picture of crime displacement.
A number of scholars and campaigners blame these issues upon a gendered design; believing that the UK prison system was designed by men, for men. The aim of the dissertation was to investigate the veracity of this notion using a secondary literary-based research approach. Genocide is perhaps the most extreme and destructive crime against humanity, however, the international response to incidents of this nature has frequently lacked political will or commitment, either financially or through military interventions.In order to attain equal justice, efforts to recruit minority individuals into Imprisonment In The Yellow Wallpaper bearing lots of responsibilities Essay On Indeterminate Sentencing the justice system should be redoubled. Essay On Indeterminate Sentencing Rachael Essay On Indeterminate Sentencing Fowler. It was sad and hilarious, both at the same time. He Essay On Indeterminate Sentencing and started a family.