⒈ African American Equality Pros And Cons
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How America's public schools keep kids in poverty - Kandice Sumner
Others might resent changes in existing school traditions and revised academic requirements designed to promote multiculturalism, suggests Keith Wilson, dean of the College of Education and Human Services at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Some educators must omit portions of their lessons or restructure them to accommodate a wider range of cultural and historical perspectives. Thus, their lessons are less robust and are more generalized.
For example, a language arts teacher might only have time to discuss one of William Shakespeare's plays or one of Robert Frost's poems during the semester to make room for other literary works by authors from other countries, such as China, Germany, Mexico or France. Students might gain a broader knowledge base, but learn fewer details about specific content areas. In this example, a generalized approach might hurt a student who plans to major in English literature or become a high school or college English literature teacher.
As curriculum developer and educator, Kristine Tucker has enjoyed the plethora of English assignments she's read and graded! Her experiences as vice-president of an energy consulting firm have given her the opportunity to explore business writing and HR. Tucker has a BA and holds Ohio teaching credentials. Enslaved males were generally kept in the ship's hold, where they experienced the worst of crowding. The women on the ships often endured rape by the crewmen. This gave crewmen easy access to the women which was often regarded as one of the perks of the trade system.
In the midst of these terrible conditions, enslaved Africans plotted mutiny. Enslaved males were the most likely candidates to mutiny and only at times they were on deck. In order for the crew members to keep the enslaved Africans under control and prevent future rebellions, the crews were often twice as large and members would instill fear into the enslaved Africans through brutality and harsh punishments. Africans assisted the Spanish and the Portuguese during their early exploration of the Americas.
In the 16th century some black explorers settled in the Mississippi valley and in the areas that became South Carolina and New Mexico. The uninterrupted history of black people in the United States began in , when "twenty and odd" Africans were landed in the Virginia Colony. These individuals were not enslaved but indentured servants—persons bound to an employer for a limited number of years—as were many of the settlers of European descent whites. By the s large numbers of Africans were being brought to the Thirteen Colonies. In Black people numbered almost , and made up nearly one-fifth of the United States population.
They were kidnapped by Portuguese slave traders. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of chattel slavery used in the Caribbean. Additionally, released servants had to be replaced. This, combined with the still ambiguous nature of the social status of Black people and the difficulty in using any other group of people as forced servants, led to the relegation of Black people into slavery. Massachusetts was the first colony to legalize slavery in Other colonies followed suit by passing laws that passed slavery on to the children of slaves and making non-Christian imported servants slaves for life.
Africans first arrived in , when a Dutch ship sold 19 black people to Virginian settlers at Point Comfort today's Fort Monroe , thirty miles downstream from Jamestown, Virginia. In all, about 10—12 million Africans were transported to the Western Hemisphere. The vast majority of these people came from that stretch of the West African coast extending from present-day Senegal to Angola; a small percentage came from Madagascar and East Africa.
The vast majority went to the West Indies and Brazil, where they died quickly. Demographic conditions were highly favorable in the American colonies, with less disease, more food, some medical care, and lighter work loads than prevailed in the sugar fields. At first the Africans in the South were outnumbered by white indentured servants, who came voluntarily from Europe. They avoided the plantations.
With the vast amount of good land and the shortage of laborers, plantation owners turned to lifetime enslavement of African peoples who worked for their keep but were not paid wages and could not easily escape. Enslaved Africans had some legal rights it was a crime to kill an enslaved person, and a few whites were hanged for it. Generally, enslaved Africans developed their own family system, religion, and customs in the slave quarters with little interference from owners, who were only interested in work outputs.
Before the s, the North American mainland colonies were expanding, but still fairly small in size and did not have a great demand for labour, so the colonists did not import large numbers of enslaved Africans at this point. Some enslaved Black people had been directly shipped from Africa most of them were from to the s , but initially, in the very early stages of the European colonization of North America , occasionally they had been shipped via the West Indies in small cargoes after spending time working on the islands. Their legal status was now clear: they were enslaved for life and so were the children of enslaved mothers. As white colonizers began to claim and clear more land for large-scale farming and the building of plantations, the number of enslaved Africans who were directly imported from Africa began to rapidly increase from the s to the s and thereafter, since the trade in enslaved people who were coming in from the West Indies was much too small to meet the huge demand for the now fast-growing North American mainland slave market.
Additionally, most North American buyers of enslaved people no longer wanted to purchase enslaved people who were coming in from the West Indies—by now they were either harder to obtain, too expensive, undesirable, or more often, they had been exhausted in many ways by the very brutal regime that existed on the island's sugar plantations. By the end of the seventeenth century, drastic changes in colonial tax laws, and the Crown 's removal of monopolies that had earlier been granted to a very small number of slave-trading companies such as the Royal African Company , had made the direct slave trade with Africa much easier for other slave traders.
As a result, freshly imported young, strong, and healthy Africans were now much more affordable, cheaper in price, and more readily available in large numbers to the North American slave buyers, who by now had preferred to purchase them—even if they were distraught for a while and needed time to adjust to a new life enslaved at a plantation. From about to , the majority of enslaved people who were imported to the North American mainland came directly from Africa in huge cargoes that were much-needed in order to fill the massive spike in demand for the heavy labour required to work the continually expanding plantations in the Southern colonies that later became part of the present-day United States , with most enslaved people heading to Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and French or Spanish Louisiana.
However, big Northern cities like New York, Philadelphia, and Boston, had relatively large Black populations both enslaved and free for most of the colonial period and thereafter. From the s, American-born enslaved people of African descent already began to outnumber African-born enslaved people. By the time of the American Revolution, a few of the Northern states had begun to consider abolishing slavery.
Some Southern states, such as Virginia, had produced such large and self-sustaining locally-born enslaved Black populations by the natural increase that they stopped taking indirect imports of enslaved Africans altogether. However, other Southern states, such as Georgia and South Carolina, still relied on constant, fresh supplies of enslaved people's labor to keep up with the demand for it, which accompanied their burgeoning plantation economies. These states continued to allow the direct importation of enslaved Africans until , only stopping for a few years in the s due to a temporary lull in the trade which was brought on by the American Revolutionary War.
The continuing direct importation of enslaved Africans ensured that South Carolina's Black population remained very high for most of the eighteenth century, with Black people outnumbering whites three to one. In contrast, Virginia maintained a white majority despite its significant Black enslaved population. All legal, direct importation of enslaved Africans had stopped by , when the now, newly formed United States finally banned its citizens from participating in the international slave trade altogether by law. Despite the ban, small to moderate cargoes of enslaved Africans were occasionally and illegally shipped into the United States directly from Africa for many years, as late as Slowly a free Black population emerged, concentrated in port cities along the Atlantic coast from Charleston to Boston.
Enslaved people who lived in the cities and towns had more privileges than enslaved people who did not, but the great majority of enslaved people lived on southern tobacco or rice plantations, usually in groups of 20 or more. The most serious slave rebellion was the Stono Uprising in South Carolina. The colony had about 56, enslaved people, who outnumbered whites two to one. About enslaved people rose up, seizing guns and ammunition to kill twenty whites before heading for Spanish Florida. The local militia soon intercepted and killed most of the enslaved people involved in the uprising.
At this time, slavery existed in all American colonies. Southern slavery usually took the form of field hands who lived and worked on plantations. The later half of the 18th century was a time of political upheaval in the United States. In the midst of cries for independence from British rule, people pointed out the apparent hypocrisies of slave holders' demanding freedom. The Declaration of Independence , a document that would become a manifesto for human rights and personal freedom, was written by Thomas Jefferson , who owned over enslaved people. Other Southern statesmen were also major slaveholders.
The Second Continental Congress did consider freeing enslaved people to assist with the war effort. They removed language from the Declaration of Independence that included the promotion of slavery amongst the offenses of King George III. A number of free Black people, most notably Prince Hall —the founder of Prince Hall Freemasonry , submitted petitions for the end of slavery. But these petitions were largely ignored.
This did not deter Black people, free and enslaved, from participating in the Revolution. Many fought side by side with White soldiers at the battles of Lexington and Concord and at Bunker Hill. But when George Washington took command in , he barred any further recruitment of Black people. Approximately free African-American men helped the American Colonists in their struggle for freedom. One of these men, Agrippa Hull, fought in the American Revolution for over six years. He and the other African-American soldiers fought in order to improve their white neighbor's views of them and advance their own fight of freedom.
By contrast, the British and Loyalists offered emancipation to any enslaved person owned by a Patriot who was willing to join the Loyalist forces. Lord Dunmore , the Governor of Virginia , recruited African-American men into his Ethiopian regiment within a month of making this proclamation. In South Carolina 25, enslaved people, more than one-quarter of the total, escaped to join and fight with the British, or fled for freedom in the uproar of war. The Americans eventually won the war. In the provisional treaty, they demanded the return of property, including enslaved people.
Nonetheless, the British helped up to 3, documented African Americans to leave the country for Nova Scotia , Jamaica , and Britain rather than be returned to slavery. Thomas Peters was one of the large numbers of African Americans who fought for the British. Peters was born in present-day Nigeria and belonged to the Yoruba tribe, and ended up being captured and sold into slavery in French Louisiana. Peters had fought for the British throughout the war.
When the war finally ended, he and other African Americans who fought on the losing side were taken to Nova Scotia. Here, they encountered difficulty farming the small plots of lands they were granted. They also did not receive the same privileges and opportunities as the white Loyalists had. Peters sailed to London in order to complain to the government. Peters died soon after they arrived, but the other members of his party lived on in their new home where they formed the Sierra Leone Creole ethnic identity.
The Constitutional Convention of sought to define the foundation for the government of the newly formed United States of America. The constitution set forth the ideals of freedom and equality while providing for the continuation of the institution of slavery through the fugitive slave clause and the three-fifths compromise. Additionally, free Black people's rights were also restricted in many places. Most were denied the right to vote and were excluded from public schools. Some Black people sought to fight these contradictions in court. In , Elizabeth Freeman and Quock Walker used language from the new Massachusetts constitution that declared all men were born free and equal in freedom suits to gain release from slavery.
A free Black businessman in Boston named Paul Cuffe sought to be excused from paying taxes since he had no voting rights. In the Northern states, the revolutionary spirit did help African Americans. Beginning in the s, there was widespread sentiment during the American Revolution that slavery was a social evil for the country as a whole and for the whites that should eventually be abolished. In Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance and barred slavery from the large Northwest Territory. By , that number had risen to , Most of these were in the North, but Revolutionary sentiments also motivated Southern slaveholders. For 20 years after the Revolution, more Southerners also freed enslaved people, sometimes by manumission or in wills to be accomplished after the slaveholder's death.
Quakers and Moravians worked to persuade slaveholders to free families. In Delaware, three-quarters of all Black people were free by Among the successful free men was Benjamin Banneker , a Maryland astronomer, mathematician, almanac author, surveyor, and farmer, who in assisted in the initial survey of the boundaries of the future District of Columbia. Even so, many considered emigrating to Africa. By a small number of slaves had joined Christian churches. Free Black people in the North set up their own networks of churches and in the South the slaves sat in the upper galleries of white churches.
Central to the growth of community among blacks was the Black church , usually the first communal institution to be established. The Black church was both an expression of community and unique African-American spirituality, and a reaction to discrimination. The churches also served as neighborhood centers where free Black people could celebrate their African heritage without intrusion from white detractors. The church also served as the center of education. Since the church was part of the community and wanted to provide education; it educated the freed and enslaved Black people.
Seeking autonomy, some black people like Richard Allen bishop founded separate Black denominations. The Second Great Awakening —s has been called the "central and defining event in the development of Afro-Christianity. As the United States grew, the institution of slavery became more entrenched in the southern states , while northern states began to abolish it. Pennsylvania was the first, in passing an act for gradual abolition. A number of events continued to shape views on slavery.
One of these events was the Haitian Revolution , which was the only slave revolt that led to an independent country. Many slave owners fled to the United States with tales of horror and massacre that alarmed Southern whites. The invention of the cotton gin in the s allowed the cultivation of short staple cotton, which could be grown in much of the Deep South, where warm weather and proper soil conditions prevailed. The industrial revolution in Europe and New England generated a heavy demand for cotton for cheap clothing, which caused an exponential demand for slave labor to develop new cotton plantations. They were overwhelmingly concentrated on plantations in the Deep South , and moved west as old cotton fields lost their productivity and new lands were purchased.
Unlike the Northern States who put more focus into manufacturing and commerce, the South was heavily dependent on agriculture. In , at the urging of President Thomas Jefferson , Congress abolished the importation of enslaved workers. While American Black people celebrated this as a victory in the fight against slavery, the ban increased the internal trade in enslaved people. Changing agricultural practices in the Upper South from tobacco to mixed farming decreased labor requirements, and enslaved people were sold to traders for the developing Deep South. In addition, the Fugitive Slave Act of allowed any Black person to be claimed as a runaway unless a White person testified on their behalf.
A number of free Black people, especially indentured children, were kidnapped and sold into slavery with little or no hope of rescue. By there were exactly 11 free and 11 slave states, which increased sectionalism. Fears of an imbalance in Congress led to the Missouri Compromise that required states to be admitted to the union in pairs, one slave and one free. In , after winning the Mexican-American War , a problem gripped the nation: what to do about the territories won from Mexico. Henry Clay, the man behind the compromise of , once more rose to the challenge, to craft the compromise of In this compromise the territories of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada would be organized but the issue of slavery would be decided later.
Washington D. California would be admitted as a free state but the South would receive a new fugitive slave act which required Northerners to return enslaved people who escaped to the North to their owners. The compromise of would maintain a shaky peace until the election of Lincoln in In the battle between enslaved people and slave owners was met in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The Christiana Riot demonstrated the growing conflict between states' rights and Congress on the issue of slavery.
Abolitionists in Britain and the United States in the — period developed large, complex campaigns against slavery. According to Patrick C. Kennicott, the largest and most effective abolitionist speakers were Black people who spoke before the countless local meetings of the National Negro Conventions. They used the traditional arguments against slavery, protesting it on moral, economic, and political grounds.
Their role in the antislavery movement not only aided the abolitionist cause but also was a source of pride to the Black community. In , Harriet Beecher Stowe published a novel that changed how many would view slavery. Uncle Tom's Cabin tells the story of the life of an enslaved person and the brutality that is faced by that life day after day. It would sell over , copies in its first year.
The popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin would solidify the North in its opposition to slavery, and press forward the abolitionist movement. President Lincoln would later invite Stowe to the White House in honor of this book that changed America. In Charles Sumner , a Massachusetts congressmen and antislavery leader, was assaulted and nearly killed on the House floor by Preston Brooks of South Carolina. Sumner had been delivering an abolitionist speech to Congress when Brooks attacked him. Brooks received praise in the South for his actions while Sumner became a political icon in the North. Sumner later returned to the Senate, where he was a leader of the Radical Republicans in ending slavery and legislating equal rights for freed slaves. Over 1 million enslaved people were moved from the older seaboard slave states, with their declining economies, to the rich cotton states of the southwest; many others were sold and moved locally.
They established churches and fraternal orders. Many of these early efforts were weak and they often failed, but they represented the initial steps in the evolution of Black communities. During the early Antebellum period, the creation of free Black communities began to expand, laying out a foundation for African Americans' future. At first, only a few thousand African Americans had their freedom. As the years went by, the number of blacks being freed expanded tremendously, building to , by the s. They sometimes sued to gain their freedom or purchased it.
Some slave owners freed their bondspeople and a few state legislatures abolished slavery. African Americans tried to take the advantage of establishing homes and jobs in the cities. During the early s free Black people took several steps to establish fulfilling work lives in urban areas. These owners considered whites to be more reliable and educable. This resulted in many Black people performing unskilled labor. Black men worked as stevedores , construction worker , and as cellar-, well- and grave-diggers. As for Black women workers, they worked as servants for white families.
Some women were also cooks, seamstresses, basket-makers, midwives, teachers, and nurses. Some cities had independent Black seamstresses, cooks, basketmakers, confectioners, and more. While the African Americans left the thought of slavery behind, they made a priority to reunite with their family and friends. The cause of the Revolutionary War forced many Black people to migrate to the west afterwards, and the scourge of poverty created much difficulty with housing. African Americans competed with the Irish and Germans in jobs and had to share space with them. While the majority of free Black people lived in poverty, some were able to establish successful businesses that catered to the Black community.
Racial discrimination often meant that Black people were not welcome or would be mistreated in White businesses and other establishments. To counter this, Black people like James Forten developed their own communities with Black-owned businesses. Black doctors, lawyers, and other businessmen were the foundation of the Black middle class. Many Black people organized to help strengthen the Black community and continue the fight against slavery.
This organization provided social aid to poor Black people and organized responses to political issues. Further supporting the growth of the Black Community was the Black church , usually the first community institution to be established. Starting in the early s  with the African Methodist Episcopal Church , African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church and other churches, the Black church grew to be the focal point of the Black community. The Black church was both an expression of community and unique African-American spirituality, and a reaction to European American discrimination. The church also served as neighborhood centers where free black people could celebrate their African heritage without intrusion by white detractors.
Since the church was part of the community and wanted to provide education; they educated the freed and enslaved Black people. Because of discrimination at the higher levels of the church hierarchy, some Black people like Richard Allen bishop simply founded separate Black denominations. Free Black people also established Black churches in the South before After the Great Awakening , many Black people joined the Baptist Church , which allowed for their participation, including roles as elders and preachers. For instance, First Baptist Church and Gillfield Baptist Church of Petersburg, Virginia , both had organized congregations by and were the first Baptist churches in the city.
The Black community also established schools for Black children, since they were often banned from entering public schools. Only the sons and daughters of the Black middle class had the luxury of studying. The revolt of enslaved Hatians against their white slave owners, which began in and lasted until , was a primary source of fuel for both enslaved people and abolitionists arguing for the freedom of Africans in the U. In the edition of Nile's Weekly Register it is stated that freed Black people in Haiti were better off than their Jamaican counterparts, and the positive effects of American Emancipation are alluded to throughout the paper.
Enslaved people rallied around these ideas with rebellions against their masters as well as white bystanders during the Denmark Vesey Conspiracy of and the Nat Turner Rebellion of Leaders and plantation owners were also very concerned about the consequences Haiti's revolution would have on early America. Thomas Jefferson, for one, was wary of the "instability of the West Indies", referring to Haiti. Dred Scott was an enslaved person whose owner had taken him to live in the free state of Illinois.
After his owner's death, Dred Scott sued in court for his freedom on the basis of his having lived in a free state for a long period. Because enslaved people were "property, not people", by this ruling they could not sue in court. The decision was finally reversed by the Civil Rights Act of Although the Supreme Court has never explicitly overruled the Dred Scott case, the Court stated in the Slaughter-House Cases that at least one part of it had already been overruled by the Fourteenth Amendment in , which begins by stating, "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
In a single stroke it changed the legal status, as recognized by the U. The owners were never compensated. Plantation owners, realizing that emancipation would destroy their economic system, sometimes moved their enslaved people as far as possible out of reach of the Union army. By June , the Union Army controlled all of the Confederacy and liberated all of the designated enslaved people. About , free Black people and former enslaved people served in the Union Army and Navy, thus providing a basis for a claim to full citizenship.
In , the 14th amendment granted full U. The 15th amendment , ratified in , extended the right to vote to Black males. The Freedmen's Bureau was an important institution established to create social and economic order in southern states. After the Union victory over the Confederacy, a brief period of Southern Black progress, called Reconstruction, followed. During the Reconstruction the entire face of the South changed because the remaining states were readmitted into the Union. Southern Black men began to vote and were elected to the United States Congress and to local offices such as sheriff.
The safety provided by the troops did not last long, and white Southerners frequently terrorized Black voters. Coalitions of white and Black Republicans passed bills to establish the first public school systems in most states of the South, although sufficient funding was hard to find. Black people established their own churches, towns, and businesses. By the end of the 19th century, two-thirds of the farmers who owned land in the Mississippi Delta bottomlands were Black. Hiram Revels became the first African-American senator in the U.
Congress in These new politicians supported the Republicans and tried to bring further improvements to the lives of African Americans. Revels and others understood that white people may have felt threatened by the African-American congressmen. Revels stated, "The white race has no better friend than I. I am true to my own race. I wish to see all done that can be done Bruce was the other African American who became a U. Turner, Josiah T. Walls, Joseph H. De Large, and Jefferson H. He worked with white politicians from his region in order to hopefully help his fellow African Americans and other minority groups such as Chinese immigrants and Native Americans. He even supported efforts to end restrictions on former Confederates' political participation.
The aftermath of the Civil War accelerated the process of a national African-American identity formation. Du Bois , disagree that identity was achieved after the Civil War. As Joel Williamson puts it:. Many of the migrants, women as well as men, came as teachers sponsored by a dozen or so benevolent societies, arriving in the still turbulent wake of Union armies. Others came to organize relief for the refugees Still others Some came south as business or professional people seeking opportunity on this Finally, thousands came as soldiers, and when the war was over, many of [their] young men remained there or returned after a stay of some months in the North to complete their education.
The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between and They mandated de jure segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for Black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages. In the face of years of mounting violence and intimidation directed at blacks as well as whites sympathetic to their cause, the U.
When President Rutherford B. Hayes withdrew Union troops from the South in as a result of a national compromise on the election, Black people lost most of their political power. Men like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton began speaking of leaving the South. This idea culminated in the —80 movement of the Exodusters , who migrated to Kansas, where blacks had much more freedom and it was easier to acquire land. When Democrats took control of Tennessee in , they passed laws making voter registration more complicated and ended the most competitive political state in the South. Voting by Black people in rural areas and small towns dropped sharply, as did voting by poor whites. Glass Ceiling. What Does Glass Ceiling Mean? What Is an Example? Breaking the Glass Ceiling.
Origin of "Break the Glass Ceiling". Does the Glass Ceiling Still Exist? Key Takeaways The glass ceiling is a colloquial term for the social barrier preventing women from being promoted to top jobs in management. The term has been broadened to include discrimination against minorities. Marilyn Loden coined the phrase 'glass ceiling' at a Women's Exposition. Women make up S but hold only Department of Labor launched the Glass Ceiling Commission in to address the glass ceiling. What Is an Example of the Glass Ceiling? Article Sources. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts.
We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy. Compare Accounts. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where listings appear. Investopedia does not include all offers available in the marketplace. Related Terms Glass Cliff Glass cliff refers to the tendency of groups, organizations, or political parties to put women in power during times of crisis or downturn when the chance of failure is more likely.
Who Is Ann S. Ann S. Read about corporate ladder pros and cons. Gridlock Definition Gridlock occurs in politics when the government is unable to pass laws because rival parties control different parts of the executive branch and the legislature. Partner Links. Related Articles. Business Leaders Corporate Leadership by Gender.ChicagoIllinois. Cheap essay writing African American Equality Pros And Cons. The Klan's excesses The Importance Of Death In Poes Works to the passage African American Equality Pros And Cons legislation against it, African American Equality Pros And Cons with Federal enforcement, it was destroyed African American Equality Pros And Cons Janet Yellen became the first female Treasury secretary after being African American Equality Pros And Cons by President Biden and sworn in on Jan. Many industries have also converted to creating products for the war effort, such as Ford Motor Company converting its African American Equality Pros And Cons to na gyung-eun yoo jae suk military jeeps.