⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Define: Self-efficacy

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Define: Self-efficacy

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Why Self-Efficacy Matters - Mamie Morrow - TEDxFSCJ

It deserves mention today for the ability to commune with the ghosts of other explorers using special crystals and elusive keywords—an engaging, melancholy approach to textual backstory. It was also a more convoluted work of fiction, which relied on players scouring its open-ended levels for narrative artefacts. In place of the souls of the slain, Marathon offered computer terminals through which you converse with various sentient AIs about the wider universe. Conceived by Jason Jones in a bid to stand apart from id Software, the top-down Myth games equipped Bungie with a feel for how different unit types and variables might react together. Fan concoctions ranged from Batman and Alien-themed conversions to trashy oddities like The Sky May Be, in which zombiemen moonwalk and the legendary BFG has a chance of conferring immortality on its target.

Many up-and-coming designers cut their teeth on Doom mods, and other studios were eager to license it for commercial use. The two companies were at one point based just down the road from each other, and formed an enduring bond—id would eventually hand Raven the keys to the Doom and Quake franchises. Duke Nukem 3D is an intensely antisocial game, its levels grimy parodies of real-world locales, such as movie theatres and stripclubs, guarded by porcine coppers and strewn with the corpses of cinema idols like Indiana Jones and Luke Skywalker.

While technically accomplished and formally inventive—it introduced jet packs, shrink rays, animated props such as arcade cabinets, physically impossible layouts and a protagonist who provides audible commentary throughout—the game is remembered today mostly for its jiggling softcore imagery. In years to come, shooter developers would spend as much time dispelling the notoriety Duke Nukem generated as they would profiting from his example. Maryland-based Bethesda—flush from the success of its eye-catchingly vast roleplaying effort, The Elder Scrolls: Arena—released a Terminator adaptation in , endowed with lavish polygonal models. Pitching large, plausibly animated mechs against one another in texture-mapped urban environments, it was a handsome creation let down by repetitive missions.

Romero envisioned circling dragons, a hammer massive enough to send shockwaves through the earth, and events that trigger when players look in their direction, such as glowing eyes appearing in a cave mouth. By the time John Carmack neared completion of an ambitious 3D engine in , however, other id Software employees were exhausted and reluctant to depart too drastically from the Doom formula. Romero ultimately resigned himself to a reimagining of Doom in polygonal 3D—and resigned from id Software itself after finishing the game.

In , bestselling Cold War fantasist Tom Clancy founded a studio, Red Storm Entertainment, in order to adapt his universe of global intrigue and high-tech espionage into videogames. You can expect banks of computer monitors and teleporters, but also broadswords and monsters ripped from the pages of Lovecraft. In hindsight, it plays like a representation of the tipping point from avant-garde into profitable convention, the point at which the chimerical possibilities of 3D action solidified into the features expected of a modern first-person shooter. In at least one respect, though, Quake was transformative—it introduced a thrilling element of verticality, with players dashing through the air above opponents rather than simply strafing or corner-camping.

The result can be held up as the original esports shooter—software company Intergraph sponsored a US-wide tournament, Red Annihilation, in May , which attracted around 2, participants. Its greatest descendent, however, would prove to be a shooter from a developer founded by Microsoft alumni Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington. In place of cutscenes, Valve weaves its tale through in-game dialogue and scripted events such as enemies smashing through doors—a tactic that both gives the player some control over the tempo and avoids jerking you out of the world. The game also sells the impression of a larger, unseen universe not via gobbets of textual backstory, but through the detail, responsiveness and consistency of its environment.

The intro sees Gordon Freeman riding a monorail through Black Mesa, gleaning information about the location and your character from PA announcements and the sight of other employees at work. Half-Life created a blueprint many FPS campaign developers would adopt in the new millennium. Together with the all-seeing, omnipresent AI manipulators of Marathon and the acclaimed cyberpunk RPG System Shock, the G-Man betrays a genre becoming increasingly aware of itself, and eager to turn its own structural constraints into a source of drama. Spielberg himself also has a robust association with game development: he co-founded DreamWorks Interactive with Microsoft in to work on adaptations of movies like Small Soldiers.

Launched in to strong sales, the game was a watershed moment in several respects. On the one hand, its more earnest, grounded approach opened the genre up to players put off by the lurid sci-fi or pulp comic settings of games like Doom and Wolfenstein. On the other, it facilitated tense discussions about the right of videogame developers to depict such events, and the possibility that violent games spark violent behaviour.

Medal of Honor released a few months after the Columbine massacre in Colorado, an atrocity that gave rise to a moral panic over videogame violence. Fearful of a backlash, DreamWorks Interactive removed all blood from the game before launch. It also attracted a heated reaction from the US Congressional Medal of Honor Society, and its president voiced his concerns to Spielberg in person.

Like Quake, the game was designed to be modded easily and extensively. Need a translator? Translator tool. What is the pronunciation of attitude? Browse attic. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes. Image credits. Word of the Day service animal. Blog Gratitude and me-time words around staying positive October 06, Read More. New Words finfluencer. October 04, To top. English American Business Examples Translations. Sign up for free and get access to exclusive content:. Free word lists and quizzes from Cambridge. Tools to create your own word lists and quizzes. Word lists shared by our community of dictionary fans.

Sign up now or Log in. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Follow us. Choose a dictionary. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Learning Skills:. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. Over the years many theories have been developed to examine the processes involved in learning. Most learning theories concentrate on the significance for the way that learning is delivered. There are many different ways of learning both formally and informally: as part of a group, such as in a classroom setting, one-to-one, such as in a mentoring or coaching arrangement, and self-learning.

Furthermore people learn differently at different times in their lives and in different circumstances. This page examines the three main learning approaches. Most learning theories fall into one or more of these approaches. This approach to learning is based on the idea that learners respond to stimuli in their environment. The role of the learning facilitator, therefore, is to provide relevant and useful stimuli so that the learner responds to and gains the required knowledge or experience. The behaviourist approach to learning centres around the belief that appropriate behaviour can be taught through constant repetition of a task combined with feedback from the facilitator. Positive feedback encourages and reinforces success while negative feedback and immediate correction discourages the repetition of a mistake or undesirable behaviour.

In Ivan Pavlov conducted a famous experiment with dogs. Pavlov 'taught' the animals to salivate on hearing a ringing bell by linking the time of their feeding to the bell being rung. Later he stopped feeding them in this way, but the dogs continued to salivate when they heard the bell. In other words, the learned behaviour was a result of a sequence of events experienced, rather than a conscious thought process. This kind of conditioning can be used to develop repetitive actions within training, for example looking in the mirror and putting your seatbelt on before driving off in a car.

The association between stimulus-response can be made more effective by reinforcement. It is this idea that underpins the theory later developed by B. Skinner Reinforcement can work in both positive and negative ways. A positive reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. In training, where the aim is learning, for example, this might be stimulated by verbal praise, a good mark, or a feeling of achievement. On the other hand, if verbal praise is withdrawn, this will have a negative effect and motivation to learn will decrease.

One of the main ways to use the behavioural approach to learning in training and teaching is to specify clear behavioural objectives at the start and then supply learning opportunities that ensure that the objectives are met. The approach is also based on the view that there is one right way, one truth that the student needs to learn, and that knowledge is the same for all learners. For this reason it emphasises teacher or trainer control; the trainer employs external reinforcement to motivate and encourage trainees to reach the stated objectives. He proposes an eight-stage model, each stage of which is associated with a type of learning that influences the way that instruction is delivered.

Gagne says that learning at one level is only possible if learning at a previous level has already taken place. The Conditions of Learning

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