🔥🔥🔥 Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand

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Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand

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How the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Unfolded with Dan Snow

This event triggered the outbreak of WWI one month later. How did European newspapers of the time cover this crucial event and the political opinions? Did the news travel fast? Europeana Newspapers has gathered historic newspaper material to illustrate how different European newspapers reported on this crucial event. Today we start with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.

For about one century this dramatic event is known as the triggering event of World War One. Indeed, the exacerbation of nationalistic tensions in Central and Balkan Europe, an Austro-Hungarian declining monarchy and the play of strategic and diplomatic alliances precipitated within a month the European continent into war. Yet what might be obvious today was not so much at that time and the announcement of this assassination in the newspapers of the time throughout Europe does not reflect or foresee the gravity of the situation. When looking back on European newspapers of the time, two main common themes can be distinguished:. No source allows us to know with certainty what happened. The trial minutes inform us nevertheless that a conspiracy took place.

The seven conspirators had no experience in the use of weapons, and it is only by an extraordinary series of coincidences that they succeeded. A second member did not attempt anything since he was fearful of harming the Duchess. It seems that the prince had time to take the bomb in his hand and to throw it out of his car. The explosion nevertheless destroyed the next car, seriously injuring its passengers, a policeman and several people in the crowd. As the cyanide pill he had taken was old or too low dosed and the tide of river was very low, he failed in his attempt and was arrested. Later in the morning, the Archduke decided to go to the hospital to visit the victims of the bomb.

Gavrilo Princip saw his car passing near Latin Bridge, caught it and fired twice. The first bullet pierced the side of the car and reached the Duchess of Hohenberg in the abdomen, the second bullet struck the Archduke in the neck. Both died of their wounds fifteen minutes later. The Austrian newspapers were the first ones to cover the event, as to be expected. Seine Gemahlin die Herzogin von Hohenberg ermordet! The heir to the throne of Austria murdered! New industrial and manufacturing technologies created the need to dominate new territories and their natural resources, including oil, rubber, coal, iron and other raw materials.

With the British Empire extending to five continents and France controlling many the African colonies, Germany wanted a larger slice of the territorial pie. As countries vied for position, tensions rose, and they formed alliances to position themselves for European dominance. The rise of nationalism undermined diplomacy. During the 19th century, rising nationalism swept through Europe. As people took more pride in country and culture, their desire to rid themselves of imperial rule increased. In some cases, however, imperialism fed nationalism as some groups claimed superiority over others.

This widespread nationalism is thought to be a general cause of World War I. For instance, after Germany dominated France in the Franco-Prussian War of , France lost money and land to Germany, which then fueled French nationalism and a desire for revenge. Entangled alliances created two competing groups. In , Germany and Austria-Hungary allied against Russia. As war was declared, the allied countries emboldened each other to enter the fray and defend their treaties, although not every coalition was set in stone—Italy later changed sides.

Militarism sparked an arms race. Six automobiles were waiting. By mistake, three local police officers got into the first car with the chief officer of special security; the special security officers who were supposed to accompany their chief got left behind. According to the program, at a. Security arrangements within Sarajevo were limited. The local military commander, General Michael von Appel, proposed that troops line the intended route but was told that this would offend the loyal citizenry.

Protection for the visiting party was accordingly left to the Sarajevo police, of whom only about 60 were on duty on the Sunday of the visit. He too failed to act. The bomb bounced off the folded back convertible cover into the street. The procession sped away towards the Town Hall leaving the disabled car behind. Mayor, I came here on a visit and I am greeted with bombs. It is outrageous. Franz Ferdinand had to wait as his own speech, still wet with blood from being in the damaged car, was brought to him.

To the prepared text he added a few remarks about the day's events thanking the people of Sarajevo for their ovations "as I see in them an expression of their joy at the failure of the attempt at assassination. Officials and members of the Archduke's party discussed what to do next. The archduke's chamberlain, Baron Rumerskirch, proposed that the couple remain at the Town Hall until troops could be brought into the city to line the streets. Governor-General Oskar Potiorek vetoed this suggestion [82] on the grounds that soldiers coming straight from maneuvers would not have the dress uniforms appropriate for such duties.

Franz Ferdinand and Sophie gave up their planned program in favor of visiting the wounded from the bombing, at the hospital. Count Harrach took up a position on the left-hand running board of Franz Ferdinand's car to protect the Archduke from any assault from the river side of the street. At a. After learning that the first assassination attempt had been unsuccessful, Princip thought about a position to assassinate the Archduke on his return journey, and decided to move to a position in front of a nearby food shop Schiller's delicatessen , near the Latin Bridge. Don't die! Live for our children! Even though most foreign royalty had planned to attend, they were pointedly disinvited and the funeral was just the immediate imperial family, with the dead couple's three children excluded from the few public ceremonies.

The officer corps was forbidden to salute the funeral train, and this led to a minor revolt led by Archduke Karl , the new heir presumptive. The public viewing of the coffins was curtailed severely and even more scandalously, Montenuovo tried unsuccessfully to make the children foot the bill. All of the assassins were eventually caught. Anti-Serb rioting broke out in Sarajevo and various other places within Austria-Hungary in the hours following the assassination until order was restored by the military. The following day, anti-Serb demonstrations in Sarajevo became more violent and could be characterized as a pogrom. The police and local authorities in the city did nothing to prevent anti-Serb violence.

Following the assassination, Franz Joseph's daughter, Marie Valerie, noted that her father expressed his greater confidence in the new heir presumptive, his grandnephew Archduke Charles. The emperor admitted to his daughter, regarding the assassination: "For me, it is a relief from a great worry. The majority of the defendants were charged with conspiracy to commit high treason involving official circles in the Kingdom of Serbia. The trial was held from 12 to 23 October with the verdict and sentences announced on 28 October The adult defendants, facing the death penalty, portrayed themselves at trial as unwilling participants in the conspiracy. If you betray it, you and your family will be destroyed.

When pressed for why he risked the punishment of the law, and did not take the protection of the law against these threats he responded: "I was more afraid of terror than the law. The three members of the original assassination team acknowledged full responsibility for their acts, proclaiming their ideal of a liberated and united South Slav people, exonerating Serbia and the Narodna Obrana whose responsibility the prosecution tried to prove, however the court did not believe the defendants' statements as it deferred from their depositions made at the preliminary investigation.

How could Serbia be brought into the affair? Prison terms, death sentences and acquittals were as follows: []. Those under the age of 20 years at the time of the crime could receive a maximum sentence of 20 years under Austrian-Hungarian law. The court heard arguments regarding Princip's age, as there was some doubt as to his true date of birth but concluded that Princip was under 20 at the time of the assassination.

In late and early , secret peace talks took place between Austria-Hungary and France. For some time, Regent Alexander and officers loyal to him had planned to get rid of the military clique headed by Apis, as Apis represented a political threat to Alexander's power. On 15 March Apis and the officers loyal to him were indicted, on various false charges unrelated to Sarajevo the case was retried before the Supreme Court of Serbia in and all defendants were exonerated , [] by Serbian Court Martial on the French-controlled Salonika front. On 23 May Apis and eight of his associates were sentenced to death; two others were sentenced to 15 years in prison. One defendant died during the trial and the charges against him were dropped. The Serbian High Court reduced the number of death sentences to seven.

Regent Alexander commuted four of the remaining death sentences, leaving just three death sentences in place. And now who could reprieve them? As the three condemned men were driven to their execution, Apis remarked to the driver: "Now it is clear to me and clear to you too, that I am to be killed today by Serbian rifles solely because I organized the Sarajevo outrage.

Some serious personal misadventure might befall him. His journey might give rise to incidents and demonstrations that Serbia would deprecate but that would have fatal repercussions on Austro-Serbian relations. Bilinski showed no sign of attaching great importance to the total message and dismissed it limiting himself to remarking when saying goodbye and thanking him: 'Let us hope nothing does happen. In J. His name appeared in Serbian documents captured by Austria-Hungary during the war. Serbia published no clarifications of their confessions with regards to the Sarajevo attack. After Serbia's victory over Bulgaria in Macedonia in the Balkan Wars , the "Black Hand" became moribund because of the death of its president and the failure to replace him, an inactive secretary, casualties, broken links between its three-man cells, and a drying up of funding.

Apis's confession to ordering the operation that begins with the phrase "As the Chief of the Intelligence Department of the General Staff", [41] the fact that the military chain of command was invoked, the moribund nature of the "Black Hand" and the fact that under the "Black Hand" constitution Article 16, such an assassination could only be ordered by a vote of the Supreme Council Directorate, the President or the Secretary and no such order was made, [] are factors in favor of assigning responsibility to Serbian Military Intelligence. At trial, it was noted that the three assassins from Belgrade tried to take all blame on themselves.

Princip explained to the court he had already read about Franz Ferdinand's upcoming visit in German papers. Serbian Military Intelligence — through remnants of the "Black Hand" — penetrated the Narodna Odbrana, using its clandestine tunnel to smuggle the assassins and their weapons from Belgrade to Sarajevo. This places the cabinet minister's discussions in late May and the information release to some time before that.

While admitting funding of the intelligence network in Austro-Hungary, Artamonov denied the involvement of his office in the assassination in an interview with Albertini. There is evidence that Russia was at least aware of the plot before 14 June. De Schelking writes:.

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