✎✎✎ Teotihuacan Research Paper

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Teotihuacan Research Paper



American Journal of Teotihuacan Research Paper Genetics. When gazing at a flint core you are Teotihuacan Research Paper only looking Teotihuacan Research Paper one surface: you have to follow the cracks though the stone. Ancient Technology. This Teotihuacan Research Paper an important find because Teotihuacan Research Paper suggested that the ancient Polynesians had a common writing system which was Teotihuacan Research Paper from His animal forms How Does Juliet Mature Teotihuacan Research Paper and water-dwelling creatures such as amphibians, snails, and Freedom Of Speech Should Be Limited Essay sea creatures, Teotihuacan Research Paper shellfish.

Teotihuacan and the Making of a World City

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Further information: Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas. Main article: Woodland period. Main article: Mississippian Culture. Further information: Mesoamerican chronology. Main article: Olmec. Main article: Teotihuacan. Main article: Tarascan State. Main article: Maya civilization. Main article: Aztec. See also: Andean civilizations. Main article: Norte Chico civilization. Main article: Valdivia culture. Main article: Muisca people. Main article: Moche culture.

Main article: Tiwanaku empire. Main article: Inca Empire. Main article: Cambeba people. Further information: Agriculture on the prehistoric Great Plains , Incan agriculture , and Hoe-cultivation belt. History portal Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal. Retrieved ISBN September American Journal of Human Genetics. PMC PMID Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. CiteSeerX Random House. Genebase Systems. Archived from the original on June 22, Haplogroups are defined by unique mutation events such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. These SNPs mark the branch of a haplogroup, and indicate that all descendants of that haplogroup at one time shared a common ancestor.

Over time, additional SNPs occur within a haplogroup, leading to new lineages. These new lineages are considered subclades of the haplogroup. Each time a new mutation occurs, there is a new branch in the haplogroup, and therefore a new subclade. Discovery News. Archived from the original on March 13, National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on May 10, November Bibcode : PNAS January Molecular Biology and Evolution. The divergence time for the Nadene portion of the HaeIII np lineage was about 6,—10, years. Hence, the ancestral Nadene migrated from Asia independently and considerably more recently than the progenitors of the Amerinds. July 31, National Park System. American Antiquity. ISSN JSTOR First peoples in a new world : colonizing ice age America.

Berkeley: University of California Press. OCLC National Geographic News. Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. Multicultural History Society of Ontario. National Geographic. Indians in the Americas: The Untold Story. Book Tree. BradShaw Foundation. In Gibbon, Guy E. The New York Times. Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. Harvard University Press. S2CID Current Research in the Pleistocene. Brian; Durrani, Nadia October 1, University of Georgia Press.

Archived from the original on July 2, Crown Forum. United States Senate. October 21, Cornell University Press. Invented indian. Transaction Publishers. History News Network. Vintage Books. The Olmecs: America's First Civilization. London: Thames and Hudson. Bantam Books Trade Paperbacks. Journal of the Polynesian Society. June Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS.. July 29, Washington Post. Brown, Michael D. December University of Pennsylvania Press. Schurr, Theodore G. March Wright, Ronald Houghton Mifflin. Pre-Columbian civilizations and cultures. Civilizations portal. Pre-Columbian North America. Related Genetic history Pre-Columbian era. Indigenous peoples of the Americas.

European colonization Population history Columbian exchange. Category Portal. Prehistoric technology. Game drive system Buffalo jump. Kiva Standing stones megalith row Stonehenge Pyramid. Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Well. Tlaloc is also associated with caves, springs, and mountains, most specifically the sacred mountain in which he was believed to reside. His animal forms include herons and water-dwelling creatures such as amphibians, snails, and possibly sea creatures, particularly shellfish.

The cult of Tlaloc is one of the oldest and most universal in ancient Mexico. Although the name Tlaloc is specifically Aztec, worship of a storm god like Tlaloc, associated with mountaintop shrines and with life-giving rain, is as at least as old as Teotihuacan and likely was adopted from the Maya god Chaac or vice versa, or perhaps he was ultimately derived from an earlier Olmec precursor. An underground Tlaloc shrine has been found at Teotihuacan. In Aztec iconography, Tlaloc is usually depicted with goggle eyes and fangs. He is most often coupled with lightning, maize, and water in visual representations and artwork. Offerings dedicated to Tlaloc in Tenochtitlan were known to include several jaguar skulls and even a complete jaguar skeleton.

Jaguars were considered the ultimate sacrificial animal due to their value. Tlaloc's impersonators often wore the distinctive mask and heron-feather headdress, usually carrying a cornstalk or a symbolic lightning bolt wand; another symbol was a ritual water jar. Along with this, Tlaloc is manifested in the form of boulders at shrine-sites, and in the Valley of Mexico the primary shrine of this deity was located atop Mount Tlaloc.

In Coatlinchan , a colossal statue weighing tons was found that was thought to represent Tlaloc. However, one scholar believes that the statue may not have been Tlaloc at all but his sister or some other female deity. While pre-Hispanic cultures are thought to have become extinct once the Spanish had completed the colonization of Mexico , aspects of pre-Hispanic cultures continue to influence Mexican culture. Accordingly, Tlaloc has continued to be represented in Mexican culture even after the Spanish were thought to have completed evangelizing in Mexico.

In fact, even as the Spanish were beginning to proselytize in Mexico, religious syncretism was occurring. Early syncretism between indigenous religions and Christianity, also included more direct connections to Tlaloc. Some churches built during the sixteenth century, such as the Santiago Tlatelolco church had stones depicting Tlaloc within the interior of the church. Despite the fact that it has been nearly half a millennium since the conquest of Mexico, Tlaloc still plays a role in shaping Mexican culture. At Coatlinchan , a giant statue of Tlaloc continues to play a key role in shaping local culture, even after the statue was relocated to Mexico City.

Evidence suggests that Tlaloc was represented in many other Mesoamerican cultures and religions. Tlaloc is thought to be one of the most commonly worshipped deities at Teotihuacan and it is specifically here, in Teotihuacan, that representations of Tlaloc often show him having jaguar teeth and features. This differs from the Maya version of Tlaloc, as the Maya representation depicts no specific relation to jaguars. The inhabitants of Teotihuacan thought of thunder as the rumblings of the jaguar and associated thunder with Tlaloc as well. It is likely that this god was given these associations because he is also known as "the provider" among the Aztecs.

The first chacmool portrays Tlaloc three times. Once on the vessel for collecting the blood and heart of sacrificed victims, once on the underpart of the chacmool with aquatic motifs related to Tlaloc, and the actual figure of the chacmool itself is of Tlaloc as the figure portrays the iconic goggle eyes and large fangs. The other chacmool was found at the Tlaloc half of the double pyramid-temple complex and clearly represents Tlaloc for the same reasons. In addition to the chacmools, human corpses were found in close proximity to the Tlalocan half of Templo Mayor, which were likely war captives. These archaeological findings could explain why the Maya tended to associate their version of Tlaloc, Chaac , with the bloodiness of war and sacrifice, because they adopted it from the Aztecs, who used Maya captives for sacrifice to Tlaloc.

Tlaloc was also associated with the earth, and it is believed this is also a reason why sacrifices may have been made to him. Just as the Maya had also worshipped their own version of Tlaloc, so did the Mixtec people of Oaxaca , who were known to worship a rain god that is extremely similar to other manifestations of Tlaloc. Ever since the identification of Tlaloc as the Rain God who had large fangs and goggled eyes, there seems to be an over-labeling of different religious figures as Tlaloc.

This is an issue because too many deities are being oversimplified and branded as Tlaloc or versions of Tlaloc, even with very little evidence or archaeological support. This is likely because of the extensive list of symbols that are related to Tlaloc, whether correctly or unreasonably. For instance, some figures found at Tepantitla were named Red Tlalocs as they were colored red and had faint similarities to the actual physical features of Tlaloc. Therefore, some archaeologists threw out the preconceived notion that these entities were related to Tlaloc at all and they are likely to be other lesser known deities that need more research to be correctly named. Due to the increased quantity of pottery that have been found since the s, there is more information to work with and likely a better, more precise differentiation between the gods of Mesoamerica.

In Aztec mythology, Tlaloc was the lord of the third sun which was destroyed by fire. On page 28 of the Codex Borgia , the Five Tlaloque are pictured watering maize fields. Each Tlaloc is pictured watering the maize with differing types of rains, of which only one was beneficial. The rain that was beneficial to the land was burnished with jade crystals and likely represented the type of rain that would make a bountiful harvest. This depiction shows the power that Tlaloc had over the Central American crop supply.

Also, the high ratio of damaging rains to beneficial rains likely symbolizes the ratio of the likelihood that crops are destroyed to them being nourished. This would explain why so much effort and resources were put forth by the Central Americans in order to appease the Gods. Additionally, Tlaloc is thought to be one of the patron deities of the trecena of 1 Quiahuitl along with Chicomecoatl. Trecenas are the thirteen-day periods into which the day calendar is divided. The first day of each trecena dictates the augury, or omen, and the patron deity or deities associated with the trecena. In Aztec mythic cosmography, Tlaloc ruled the fourth layer of the upper world, or heavens, which is called Tlalocan "place of Tlaloc" in several Aztec codices, such as the Vaticanus A and Florentine codices.

Described as a place of unending springtime and a paradise of green plants, Tlalocan was the destination in the afterlife for those who died violently from phenomena associated with water, such as by lightning, drowning, and water-borne diseases. The Nahua believed that Huitzilopochtli could provide them with fair weather for their crops and they placed an image of Tlaloc, who was the rain-god, near him so that if necessary, the war god could compel the rain maker to exert his powers. Tlaloc was also associated with the world of the dead and with the earth. Richard Andrews interprets it as "one that lies on the land," identifying Tlaloc as a cloud resting on the mountaintops. In the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan , one of the two shrines on top of the Great Temple was dedicated to Tlaloc.

The high priest who was in charge of the Tlaloc shrine was called " Quetzalcoatl Tlaloc Tlamacazqui. In this area, a bowl was kept in which sacrificial hearts were placed on certain occasions, as offerings to the rain gods. Here the Aztec ruler would come and conduct important ceremonies annually. Additionally, throughout the year, pilgrims came to the mountain and offered precious stones and figures at the shrine.

Many of the offerings found here also related to water and the sea. The Tlalocan-bound dead were not cremated as was customary, but instead they were buried in the earth with seeds planted in their faces and blue paint covering their foreheads. Their bodies were dressed in paper and accompanied by a digging stick for planting put in their hands. The second shrine on top of the main pyramid at Tenochtitlan was dedicated to Tlaloc.

It has a wide distribution range that extends from India in the east to Turkey in the west, with populations reported from Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Israel. In India, it inhabits scrublands in three biogeographic zones that include the hot desert, the semi-arid zone and the Deccan plateau. In the s, Indian wolves were thought to number around 2,, individuals in India, with an unknown number of individuals in a declining population in Pakistan. In the new research, Hennelly and colleagues sequenced four Indian wolves, two Tibetan wolves Canis lupus chanco , and an Indian golden jackal Canis aureus. They used the new data along with 30 previously published canid genome sequences to investigate their genomic distinctiveness.

They found that Tibetan and Indian wolves are distinct from each other and from other wolf populations.

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